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326 Research products

  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage
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  • Publikationer från KTH

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Wickberg, Adam; Lidström, Susanna; Lagerkvist, Amanda; Meyer, Tirza; +4 Authors

    Over the past half century, the global environment has become subject to an accelerated pace of mediation and datafication. This ongoing transition has become so comprehensive that the knowledge, management and governance of the Earth system is dependent on enormous flows of data from a “vast machine” of measuring tools. These processes combined have formed what we call a “mediated planet,” subject to interpretation and shared human decision-making – that should ideally be democratic, inclusive and accountable. As environmental datafication continues to accelerate, private corporations are gaining increasing influence on and power over the associated collections of data. This is a cause for concern, as the global environmental commons are a public interest of concern to all people. This article argues for the need to critically research the challenges and risks associated with the rapid datafication of the environment, specifically in relation to the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for climate change (13), the ocean (14), biodiversity (15) and inclusive and accountable institutions (16). More knowledge is needed of how the SDGs and their supporting networks influence data-generation on a mediated planet, and how issues of access to and use of environmental data, as well as data ownership and AI implementation, can best be navigated. We contend that such knowledge can help enhance the democratic potential of the SDGs to build public trust and secure broad participation in global environmental governance in ways that also support peaceful and inclusive societies, as promised by SDG 16. QC 20240115

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    Publikationer från KTH
    Article . 2024 . Peer-reviewed
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      Publikationer från KTH
      Article . 2024 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Fredrik Bertilsson;

    Det här kapitlet vägleds av ett intresse för hur humanistisk kunskap hargjorts användbar i det svenska försvaret i förhållande till informationsteknologiskalandvinningar och nya former av så kallad informationspåverkanunder slutet av 1900-talet. Informationspåverkan avser kort sagtanvändningen av (vilseledande) information i syfte att påverka den allmännaopinionen, demokratiska processer och det politiska beslutsfattandet. Målet med kapitlet är att bidra till en bättre förståelse av denbetydelse som humanistisk kunskap har haft i det svenska försvaret ochdärmed den svenska staten under slutet av 1900-talet. Jag studerar kunskapsom vanligen knyts till utbildningen och forskningen inom humanioraoch humanistiska fakulteter vid universitet och högskolor. Det handlarsärskilt om filosofisk kunskap om bedömningen eller värderingen av argumentoch utsagor i text samt källkritik. Källkritiken utvecklades ursprungligenav historiker under 1800-talet och har som vetenskaplig metod haftett stort inflytande på historievetenskapen i de nordiska länderna, kanskesärskilt i Sverige. QC 20230913 Humanistisk kunskap i den svenska försvarsforskningen: Humanvetenskapen vid FOA 5

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Publikationer från K...arrow_drop_down
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    Publikationer från KTH
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    https://doi.org/10.22188/krite...
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Publikationer från KTH
      Part of book or chapter of book . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      https://doi.org/10.22188/krite...
      Part of book or chapter of book . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Crossref
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Piahanau, Aliaksandr;

    Even a short breakdown in fuel supplies can have profound and dramatic consequences for modern economies. This paper explores a major coal shortage in Central Europe after WWI which shook local societies for two years. The dissolution of the Habsburg Empire in 1918 provides a narrower context to this study, while its immediate focus lies upon the development of diplomatic and economic relationships between Czechoslovakia – a WWI victor and an important coal exporter, and Hungary – a war losing state that was a net coal importer. This paper underlines the scale of the Hungarian reliance on fuels from Czechoslovakia, and suggests that this dependency was one of the chief arguments that motivated Budapest to cede Slovakia to Prague’s control and, more generally, to accept the peace terms proposed at the Paris conference. It is safe to conclude that economic considerations played a much greater, if not dominant, role in the adoption of the peace treaty of Trianon of 1920 in Hungary. Overall, the paper demonstrates that cross- border energy interdependence substantially influenced diplo-matic relations in Central Europe immediately after WWI, privile-ging coal-exporting states over coal-importing states. QC 20230607

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    Publikationer från KTH
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    Diplomacy and Statecraft
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Publikationer från KTH
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      Diplomacy and Statecraft
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Millan, Matteo;

    Shooting societies organized by town citizens (burghers) were considered the traditional guardians of many autonomous settlements in Central Europe from the Middle Ages up to the late nineteenth century. In seeking to identify the causes of their decline in late Habsburg Hungary, this article draws attention to a variety of modernizing drives that undermined the stability of burgher marksmanship. One was the emerging Hungarian nation-state, which hindered the development of paramilitary citizen groups by limiting local self-governance and freedom of association. Another was the modern appeal to ethnic homogenization in the form of Magyarization. It aroused hostility towards the burgher riflemen because of their frequent use of the German language and loyalty to the Habsburgs, and not to the Magyar nation. Although the surviving burgher shooting societies had espoused Magyar nationalism by the early 1900s, they nonetheless maintained their elitism, excluding the growing urban populations from membership. At the same time, the burgher riflemen failed to engage sufficiently actively in rifle training to secure the support of the Defence Ministry and the radical Magyar nationalists. Instead, they remained traditional venues for socializing and networking for the increasingly isolated ennobled petty bourgeoisie. This created a situation where the burgher marksmen became marginal players not only in urban political life but also in Hungary's rapidly developing paramilitary culture. The story of the decline of the burgher shooting societies sheds new light on the ambiguities of modernization, but also demonstrates the weakness of societal militarization in pre-1914 Central Europe. Research for this article was supported by the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (G.A. 677199 – ERCStG2015 ‘The Dark Side of the Belle Époque: Political Violence and Armed Associations before the First World War’)QC 20230608

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    Publikationer från KTH
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    The Slavonic and East European Review
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Sygma; Crossref
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      Publikationer från KTH
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      The Slavonic and East European Review
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Book, Love;

    The demand for automation of simple tasks is constantly increasing. While some tasks are easy to automate because the logic is fixed and the process is streamlined, other tasks are harder because the performance of the task is heavily reliant on the judgment of a human expert. Matching a consultant to an offer from a client is one such task, in which case the expert is either a manager to the consultants or someone within HR at the company. One way to approach this task is to model the specific domain of interest using natural language processing. If we can capture the relationships between relevant skills and phrases within the specific domain, we could potentially use the resulting embeddings in a consultant to offer matching scheme. In this paper, we propose a key phrase-based web scraping approach to collect the data we need for a domain-specific corpus. To retrieve the key phrases needed as prompts for web scraping, we propose using the transformer-based library KeyBERT on limited domain-specific in house data belonging to the consultant firm B3 Indes, in order to retrieve the most important phrases in their respective contexts. Facebook's Word2vec based language model fasttext is then used on the processed corpus to create the fixed word embeddings. We also investigate numerous different approaches for selecting the right key phrases for web scraping in a human similarity comparison scheme, as well as comparisons to a larger pretrained general domain fasttext model. We show that utilizing key phrases for a domain-specific fasttext model could be beneficial compared to using a larger pretrained model. The results are not consistently conclusive under the current analytical framework. The results also indicate that KeyBERT is beneficial when selecting the key phrases compared to the randomized sampling of relevant phrases; however, the results are not conclusive. Efterfrågan för automatisering av enkla uppgifter efterfrågas alltmer. Medan vissa uppgifter är lätta att automatisera eftersom logiken är fast och processen är tydlig, är andra svårare eftersom utförandet av uppgiften starkt beror på en människas expertis. Att matcha en konsult till ett erbjudande från en klient är en sådan uppgift, där experten är antingen en chef för konsulterna eller någon inom HR på företaget. En metod för att hantera denna uppgift är att modellera det specifika området av intresse med hjälp av maskininlärningsbaserad språkteknologi. Om vi kan fånga relationerna mellan relevanta färdigheter och fraser inom det specifika området, skulle vi potentiellt kunna använda de resulterande inbäddningarna i ett matchningsprocess mellan konsulter och uppdrag. I denna rapport föreslås en nyckelordsbaserad webbskrapnings-metod för att samla in data som behövs för ett domänspecifikt korpus. För att hämta de nyckelord som behövs som input för webbskrapning, föreslår vi att använda transformator-baserade biblioteket KeyBERT på begränsad domänspecifik data från konsultbolaget B3 Indes, detta för att hämta de viktigaste fraserna i deras respektive sammanhang. Sedan används Facebooks Word2vec baserade språkmodell fasttext på det bearbetade korpuset för att skapa statiska inbäddningar. Vi undersöker också olika metoder för att välja rätt nyckelord för webbskrapning i en likhets-jämnförelse mot mänskliga experter, samt jämförelser med en större förtränad fasttext-modell som inte är domänspecifik. Vi visar att användning av nyckelord för webbskrapning för träning av en domänspecifik fasttext-modell skulle kunna vara fördelaktigt jämnfört med en förtränad modell, men resutaten är inte konsekvent signifikanta enligt det begränsade analytiska ramverket. Resultaten indikerar också att KeyBERT är fördelaktigt vid valet av nyckelord jämfört med slumpmässigt urval av relevanta fraser, men dessa resultat är inte heller helt entydiga.

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    Publikationer från KTH
    Bachelor thesis . 2023
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      Publikationer från KTH
      Bachelor thesis . 2023
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    Introduction The waterfront of Stockholm, one of Europe's fastest-growing cities, stands at the forefront of climate change challenges. As such, there is a pressing need for innovative solutions and resilient urban design. The SOS Climate Waterfront research project gathered international experts and local representatives, coming from different disciplines to work together in May-June 2022 to discuss, explore proposals and design Sustainable Open Solutions (SOS). This book explores three urban sites in Stockholm, holding significant implications for the city's waterfront— Lövholmen, Frihamnen, and Södra Värtan. During the workshop, SOS Climate Waterfront participants, mainly European researchers, analyzed future challenges, raised new questions, and depicted solutions, which can now contribute to cross-country comparisons in a larger EU-framework. The three sites are not only driven by the demand for more housing but also face crucial issues related to cultural heritage, climate change, landscape ecology, and social development. Achieving a delicate balance between these aspects and economic interests presents a significant task for the city. The waterfront of Stockholm holds substantial relevance in the context of climate change and its impact on coastal areas. Thus, analysis of the Swedish context, based on data collected and on-site knowledge sustains a deeper understanding of the challenges and opportunities that lie ahead. Stockholm is expected to be affected by the impacts of climate change, including temperature increases, changing precipitation patterns, and the potential for more frequent cloudbursts. While the rising sea level is a long-term challenge rather than an immediate concern, increasing risks of extreme weather events and flooding were taken in consideration. Stockholm rests on two different bodies of water, at a location where the Baltic Sea (Östersjön in Swedish) with brackish water meets Lake Mälaren, which is an important provider of freshwater for the larger Stockholm area. As the lyrics of a popular contemporary Swedish song (by Robert Broberg) describe it: “the city is full of water”. However, to ensure that the ecological and chemical status will be maintained, in facing future challenges in terms of urbanisation and climate change, much attention has been paid to ensure the preservation of the water quality of the Mälaren Lake, a vital water source for two million people. The city values its water and continuously invests in improving the situation (e.g. the new sluice at Slussen). The activities carried out in the SOS Climate Waterfront workshop in Stockholm integrated this relationship to water as well as the continuing land-rise, the balance of which adds complexity to the sea level modelling and therefore also to the anticipations and scenarios for the future. In this book, the authors explore innovative strategies and design proposals to tackle these challenges while preserving the cultural identity and heritage value of the sites. Researchers from various European cities, supported by experts and academic lectures, analyze extensive input materials and information, ranging from planning documents and historical records to consultation reports and city visions. By drawing upon multidisciplinary backgrounds and experiences, the researchers identify the socioeconomic and environmental qualities of each site, ultimately developing site design concepts and solutions that address climate change challenges, the maintenance of cultural identities, and the protection of biodiversity. Throughout the book, the proposed designs emphasize the importance of finding a balance between preserving cultural heritage, the values of local communities, the stimulating economic growth, and promotion of sustainable urban development. Key elements include the reuse of existing infrastructure, the integration of green-blue schemes, the improvement of biodiversity, and the creation of vibrant and multi-functional neighbourhoods that connect people to each other and their surroundings. While design solutions present promising approaches, their implementation and the institutional challenges that may arise in specific city contexts remain external to the results presented here. The book acknowledges the need for further research and highlights the shared recognition among the workshop participants regarding the gaps and blind spots in their findings. The following chapters of the book delve into climate change in Sweden, the role of culture and arts in the environmental movement, and specific case studies and design proposals for each site. By exploring these diverse perspectives, this book aims to contribute to the ongoing discourse on sustainable urban design and planning, to inspire innovative approaches in addressing complex challenges faced by Stockholm in the future. PART 1 of the book offers a comprehensive understanding of climate change in Sweden, street fishing in Stockholm, and the role of culture and arts in the environmental movement in the Nordic Region and internationally. Furthermore, the lessons from Stockholm and its surroundings in this report draw on presentations, by professionals and researchers from various fields, made during the workshop. Some of these lessons have been written into interesting articles, introduced below. The chapter “Climate change in Sweden” by Magnus Joelsson from the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) provides an updated analysis with data and the context for discussing climate change in Sweden. The text makes the distinction between weather and climate, referring to the expression “Climate is what you expect, weather is what you get” that Mark Twain is said to have coined. Moreover, calling for actions by emphasising that the trend of climate change is expected to continue, both globally and in Sweden. What will happen in the far future still depends on our actions, now and in the future. The contribution entitled “Urban nature does not stop at the waterfront, neither should urban planning, a case study of street fishing in Stockholm” raises questions about how planning and strategies for waterfront areas in cities should consider more perspectives from a wider group of interests. It discusses how urban dwellers live with water, with a focus on recreational fishing and what this use entails. The authors (Anja Moum Rieser, from KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Wieben Johannes Boonstra and Rikard Hedling, both from Uppsala University) go beyond the human-centric view and expand the gaze to other species’ needs and also incorporating the body of water in planning for the urban waterfront areas. The chapter “The role of culture and arts in the environmental movement in the Nordic Region and internationally” by Elisavet Papageorgiou and Iwona Preis from Intercult, discusses artistic perspectives on sustainability and climate change. This focuses on how art and culture can raise awareness, provide inspiring actions, and promote social cohesion around sustainable practices. Drawing on experiences from projects aiming to invite and engage community dialogues, they argue that artistic strategies can challenge dominant narratives and promote alternative visions for a sustainable future. The contribution “Sense the Marsh” by Thelma Dethelfsen from KTH The Royal Institute of Technology, emphasises the importance of architecture and landscape design in creating adaptive and resilient strategies to manage flooding and sea level rise. The study focuses on how designs can encourage interaction and awareness with the surroundings. Thereby highlighting the interfaces between humans and nature and raising questions about how flooding can be used as a quality and catalyst to attract more people to an area. The resulting design provides an opportunity to experience nature though the design and architectural solutions, situated on the border between human, non-human species and nature. In PART 2, readers will explore the detailed design proposals developed by different groups for the urban sites in focus. These proposals aim to intertwine sustainability, cultural identity, and economic interests, offering insights into the potential for resilient and vibrant urban spaces. By assessing existing conditions on three sites analysed in Stockholm, including Lövholmen, Frihamnen, and Södra Värtan, the teams participating in the workshop actively contributed to the analysis of the sites and development of design solutions for the areas, in the end forming strategies for better preparedness for future challenges and better lives for the inhabitants. Lövholmen is located in the north-western part of Liljeholmen, one of the major developmental centres in Stockholm. The area is currently a closed-off industrial site, but the municipality’s intention is to redevelop it into a mixed urban space with homes, workplaces, shops, schools, and more. It's expected that 1500 new homes will be built in the area. Many of the current industrial buildings are empty and in bad shape. While some of these will be replaced with housing, other industrial buildings have heritage value and should be protected during the development, after which a new use should be found for them. Frihamnen is, together with the Södra Värtan project, part of the larger development of ”Norra Djurgårdsstaden”, the Stockholm Royal Seaport. Frihamnen is located to the south of Värtahamnen and is in turn strongly connected to Loudden in the south. The municipality plans for the area to contain approximately 1700 homes, 4000 workplaces and 75,000 m2 of retail and office space. Some of the existing businesses in Frihamnen will remain, but much of the existing infrastructure is planned to be removed. The harbour no longer handles freight shipping, but passenger ships will continue to depart from the harbour (Frihamnspiren). Södra Värtan is planned to contain 1500 apartments, 20 preschool departments, 155,000 m2 of office and retail space, as well as 10,000 m2 of parks and a 600 m long waterfront walkway. The new development is intended to co-exist with the activities in the harbour, which creates challenges such as the blocking of noise stemming from the cruise ships. The walkways along the waterfront are planned to have shops and restaurants. The contributions of the articles, together with the SOS Climate Waterfront teams’ analysis of the three sites in Stockholm, provides relevant and timely interdisciplinary efforts to co-create novel solutions and future strategies to manage the climate challenges ahead. The solutions relate to the history of the urban territory, actors involved (or those excluded) and changes, over time, of planning ideals. A key theme is how to plan by creating inclusive strategies for the future by involving representatives of diverse interests, competences, and future visions for the sites. The consequences of climate change are affecting these different stakeholders and citizens in a wide range of ways, so including them in the process is crucial. This also includes the inclusion of future generations’ views on urban transformation. The largest challenge is to create new, novel solutions where these human interests, as well as those of local nature and non-human species, can be incorporated, in an effort to plan and design for a mitigation and management of the consequences of climate change. As we embark on this journey of exploration and innovation, we invite readers to delve into the pages of this book, where interdisciplinary research, creative design, and a shared commitment to sustainable urban development and decarbonisation strategies converge. Together, let us envision a future where cities thrive, harmoniously balancing their heritage, environment, and economic aspirations. QC 20231115 SOS Climate Waterfront https://cordis.europa.eu/project/id/823901

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    Authors: Bjare, Ulrika;

    The thesis deals with a tension in university governance concerning research policy actors’ mandate to decide on the academic organization and direction of research, vis-à-vis researchers’ perceptions of governance in research. This tension is addressed through an analysis of the ideas and attitudes towards universities as institutions, and research as a practice, expressed at the policy level in connection with major reforms. Additionally, it is studied how individual researchers perceive and relate to governance in research in relation to the governance system as a whole and to the university management. The study makes use of different theories and methods, including the idea of the social contract for science and perspectives from implementation and policy studies as well as enactment-perspectives and theories of metagovernance. Using a document analysis of policy documents the study demonstrates that significance has been attributed to the internal university organization by policy makers. The analysis demonstrates that policy perspectives on the internal organization of universities have been shaped by ambivalent attitudes aimed at controlling academic activities, while simultaneously adhering to norms of scientific autonomy. Through quantitative analysis the study further demonstrates a correlation between researchers' perceptions of steering in research and the internal management model of universities. Researchers at universities with a high degree of line-management perceive a higher degree of influence in research from the internal university management compared with researchers at universities with low degree of line-management. One explanation suggested is that an organization with line-management and few collegial bodies makes universities less resilient to external influence. Also, line-managed universities have a more instrumental character where external factors could have a greater impact on the internal leadership. The quantitative study also shows that researchers perceive a high degree of influence in their research through external funding. This result is consistent with previous research that has demonstrated the impact of external funding on the direction of research. Similar to the survey, the thesis’s interview study shows that governance through external funding is perceived as the most potent. Consequently, the most distinct adaptation to governance is through adjustments in research applications. These adjustments involve innovative processes and the ability to transform external funders' priorities into research proposals. In this process, prospective scenarios are created, where research aligns with both the scientific field's development and society's utility paradigm. The design of the research system means that a large part of the mandate to plan, administer, develop and negotiate forms for conducting research rests with individual researchers. Bakgrund och teoretiskt ramverk Avhandlingen behandlar frågor om styrning av universitetsforskning där olika ideal – som självstyre och samhällsinflytande – ställs mot varandra. Trots att majoriteten av universitet och högskolor i Sverige är statliga myndigheter är de i många avseenden en egen form av organisation historiskt präglad av vetenskapligt självstyre. Den forsknings- och högskolepolitiska styrningen har att hantera denna spänning. Styrningen förväntas å ena sidan respektera normer om forskningens frihet och vetenskapligt självstyre, å andra sidan säkerställa att lärosätena uppfyller samhällspolitiska mål. Spänningen i styrningen handlar på så vis om i vilken grad olika forskningspolitiska aktörer ska ha mandat att avgöra frågor om forskningens organisation och genomförande. I avhandlingen studeras spänningsförhållandet i styrningen genom att analysera dels vilka föreställningar om och förhållningssätt till lärosätena som institutioner och forskningen som praktik politiken har gett uttryck för i samband med större reformer, dels hur forskare förhåller sig till forskningspolitisk styrning och till lärosätesintern ledning. På så vis studeras relationer mellan olika nivåer i styrningen av universitetsforskningen. Avhandlingen bygger framförallt på högskole- och forskningspolitiska studier samt studier av statlig styrning framförallt inom statsvetenskap. I avhandlingen används olika teoretiska perspektiv. Idén om vetenskapens samhällskontrakt utgör en del av den teoretiska förståelsen av förhållandet mellan vetenskap, politik och samhälle. Kontraktet ses som ett föränderligt och kontinuerligt föremål för förhandlingar, vilket påverkar graden av vetenskapligt självstyre. Kontraktsbegreppet sätts i relation till förvaltningspolitiska perspektiv som synliggör komplexiteten i mandatfördelningen inom styrsystemet. Avhandlingen utgår från tidigare forskning om idealtyper av förvaltningsmodeller där den professionella modellen anses prägla universitets­forskningens genomförande. Förvaltningsmodeller visar hur frågor om legitimitet och tillit för en verksamhets genomförande kan förklara varför verksamheten organiseras efter ett specifikt mönster. För en teoretisk förståelse av den övergripande styrstrukturen används teorin om organisationsstyrning som en form av metagovernance. Det vetenskapliga självstyret har traditionellt inneburit att akademisk verksamhet organiserats efter egna principer. Den kollegiala styrmodellen har då betraktats som en organisatorisk formalisering av vetenskapens självstyre. Sedan 1990-talet har dock svenska universitet alltmer utvecklats mot linjestyrning. Utvecklingen har kritiserats för att minska lärares och forskares frihet. Det finns emellertid få empiriskt baserade analyser av hur styrmodellen påverkar enskilda forskares upplevelser av frihet. I avhandlingens analys av forskares förhållningssätt till den universitetsinterna ledningen studeras därför om det finns ett samband mellan ett lärosätes styrmodell, i form av kollegial modell respektive linjemodell, och forskares upplevelser av styrning i forskningen. Denna analys grundar sig på litteratur och teorier om de två olika styrmodellerna. Analysen av forskares förhållningssätt och upplevelser av styrning i forskningen utgår dels från tidigare studier av forskares utrymme för självstyre och förhandlingar i genomförandet av forskning, dels från ett enactment-perspektiv som belyser att processen där policy överförs till praktik innefattar kreativitet, tolkningar och materiella aspekter som är kontextuellt betingade, vilket illustrerar relationen mellan policy och praktik. Forskningsdesign och material Genom att studien är inriktad på olika nivåer av styrning har den skilda material och metoder. Analysen är uppdelad i tre delstudier baserade på olika empiriskt underlag. Avhandlingen som helhet kombinerar kvalitativt och kvantitativt tillvägagångsätt. Den första delen är en dokumentstudie som analyserar politikens föreställningar om och förhållningssätt till universiteten som institutioner och forskningen som praktik i samband med större reformer. I materialet ingår förarbeten till tre stora reformer inom högskolesektorn sedan 1970-talet, H 77 (1977), frihetsreformen (1993) och autonomireformen (2011). Anledningen till att dessa studeras är att de förhållit sig till lärosätenas interna organisation som styrverktyg. Här studeras vilken syn på universitetets organisation – i relation till de samhällspolitiska målen – som politiken gett uttryck för. Politikens förhållningssätt och de (av)regleringar som följt av reformerna betraktas i studien som olika uttryck för synen på vetenskapens samhällskontrakt och vetenskapens självstyre. Den andra delstudien analyserar forskares förhållningssätt till forskningspolitisk respektive lärosätesintern styrning genom kvantitativ metod. Där presenteras två hypoteser om forskares upplevelser av styrning sett till dels den interna styrmodellen, dels externa forskningsfinansiärer. Analysen görs genom t-test och regressions­analys. I analysen jämförs i vilken grad forskare upplever styrning från den interna ledningen med i vilken grad de upplever styrning genom den externa finansieringen. Vidare analyseras om forskare vid universitet med en högre grad av linjestyrning upplever en högre grad av styrning i forskningen. Avhandlingens sista empiriskt baserade del är en intervjustudie som även den är inriktad mot forskares förhållningssätt till forskningspolitiks styrning och universitetets interna ledning. Materialet är transkriberat och analyserat i NVivo och rör forskares upplevelser och ageranden i relation till forskningens genomförande. Analyserna av forskares upplevelser av styrning i forskningens genomförande är uppdelad i tre delar: val av forskningsämne och -frågor, metod och material samt hur forskningsresultat ska publiceras och kommuniceras. Enkät- respektive intervju­studien fångar skilda delar av samma frågeställning: enkäten rör den interna styrmodellen och externfinansieringen, intervjuerna berör även dessa frågor, men de har ett bredare perspektiv och ser till forskningssystemet som helhet. Avhandlingens resultat och bidrag I dokumentstudien visas hur författningsbestämmelser om lärosätenas interna organisation använts som styrmedel i politikutformningen. Mandatet till och utformningen av den interna organisationen framstår som en viktig del i politik­utformningen. Synen har dock varierat när det gäller vilka som ska inkluderas i beslutsorganen och var i styrkedjan mandatet att besluta om organisationens utformning ska placeras. I analysen visas att variationerna beror på skilda bedömningar i tilliten till den interna organisationens förmåga att möta de samhällspolitiska målen, vilket har utmynnat i skilda avvägningar när det gäller delegering av mandat och i vilken grad den interna organisationen ska vara författningsreglerad. Analysen visar att politikens syn på lärosätenas organisation har präglats av ambivalenta förhållningssätt som syftat till att styra den akademiska verksamheten samtidigt som den rymt normer om vetenskapligt självstyre. Å ena sidan framhålls den praxis vari verksamhetens särart betonas, å andra sidan å andra sidan likställs verksamheten med andra förvaltningsmyndigheter. Avhandlingens kvantitativa analys visar att forskare vid lärosäten med en styrmodell präglad av linjestyrning upplever högre grad av påverkan i forskningen från den interna universitetsledningen. Vid lärosätena med en svag linjestyrning och med mer kollegial styrmodell upplever forskare en svagare styrning i forskningen. Studien visar därmed på ett samband mellan forskares upplevelser av styrning i forskningen och lärosätets interna styrmodell. Här finns således ett samband mellan formerna för hur beslut delegeras och fördelas inom ett universitet och forskares upplevelser av utrymmet för vetenskapligt självstyre. Ett sätt att tolka resultatet är att de lärosäten som har hållit kvar vid en kollegial styrmodell ger gett ett större utrymme för självstyre i forskningen. Förklaringen kan ligga i att den traditionella kollegiala styrningen i högre grad utgår från akademiska normer vari det vetenskapliga självstyret värnas. Sammantaget var emellertid upplevelsen av styrning från den interna ledningen relativt liten. Istället visade analysen att forskarna upplevde en hög grad av påverkan i forskningen genom externfinansieringen. Resultatet överensstämmer med tidigare forskning som påvisat externfinansieringens inverkan på forskares utrymme att välja forskningsfrågor och forskningsämne. I ansökningar om forskningsmedel sker en anpassning av forskningens inriktning till vad som bedöms möjligt att erhålla finansiering för. Samtidigt visade analysen att forskare vid mer linjestyrda universitet upplevde en högre grad av påverkan i forskningen genom externfinansieringen jämfört med forskare vid universitet med en mer kollegial styrmodell. Förklaringarna till detta kan ha att göra med att avsaknaden av kollegiala organ gör lärosätena mindre motståndskraftiga mot extern påverkan, men även att de linjestyrda universiteten har en mer instrumentell karaktär där externa faktorer i högre grad påverkar den interna ledningen. I intervjustudien visas hur forskare förhåller sig till styrning i genomförandet av forskning – dess mål, inriktning, metoder och kommunikationsformer. Utifrån den upplevda styrningen agerar forskarna för att fortsatta kunna forska och för att skapa självstyre i forskningen. Detta görs bl.a. genom att de ingår i och skapar nätverk för inflytande över forskningens inriktning, förhandlar om formerna för forskningens genomförande med externa finansiärer och i vissa fall använder sig av universitets­interna strategiska prioriteringar. Liksom i enkätstudien är det tydligt att styrningen genom den externa finansieringen upplevs starkast. Det innebär att den tydligaste anpassningen till styrningen görs genom justeringar av forskningsämne och -frågor. Justeringarna innefattar kreativa processer och en förmåga att översätta externa finansiärers prioriteringar till forskning i ansökningar om medel. I detta skapas framtidsbilder där forskningen passas in såväl i den inomvetenskapliga utvecklingen som i samhällets nyttoparadigm. Parallellt med den upplevda styrningen genom externfinansieringen visar intervjuerna att styrningen genom flera av de externa finansiärerna anses legitim. Det finns ett stort förtroende för dessa finansiärers kollegiala bedömningsprocesser; forskarna har tillit till att finansiärerna utövar sin makt på ett acceptabelt vis. Sammantaget visar även intervjustudien på en relativt liten upplevd styrning i relation till den interna ledningen. Den interna styrningen kan dock i enskilda fall, eller tidpunkter i en forskares karriär, ha stor inverkan. I avhandlingens avslutning betraktas, genom organisationsstyrningen, de olika delstudiernas resultat som aspekter av den övergripande styrningen inom sektorn över tid. De tre reformerna som studerats i dokumentstudien har genom reformberättelser motiverat inrättandet och formandet av formella organisationer. Dessa två delar av organisationsstyrningen skapar de fasta förutsättningarna för universitetsforskningen genom författningar och andra styrdokument som tillsammans utgör den formella organiseringen av högskolesektorn. Därtill påverkar konkurrensutsättning, positionering och distansering relationerna inom systemet. Relationerna inom styrsystemet fungerar såväl vertikalt som horisontellt. Forskningen bedrivs och utformas i relation till aktörer på olika nivåer inom både offentliga och privata organisationer. Relationerna är kodade med värden som legitimitet, relevans och nytta, men även mer praktiska aspekter som karriärmöjligheter och tillgång till infrastruktur inverkar. Utvecklingen med färre regleringar av universitetens organisation, det ökade beroendet av forskningsfinansiärer och fler satsningar riktade mot universitetens interna ledningar har inneburit förändrade former för statlig styrning. Organisationsstyrningen innebär att policynivån delvis har flyttats till de externa finansiärerna. Forskningsfinansiärerna bildar därmed ytterligare en styrnivå, en intermediär styrnivå, i relation till utövarna. Externfinansieringen som syftade till ökad kvalitet genom ökad konkurrens har haft tydliga effekter på universitetens interna ledningsformer som på olika vis förhåller sig till styrsystemet som helhet. Avhandlingen avslutas med att konstatera att universitets­forskare i hög grad svarar på den styrning som systemet skapar. Forskarna utvecklar en sensibilitet för att avgöra hur olika situationer ska hanteras för att uppnå de egna målen, dvs. att kunna forska och att i forskningen ha utrymme att utveckla kunskap utifrån nyfikenhetsdrivna premisser. Forskningssystemets utformning innebär därmed att en stor del av mandatet att planera, administrera, utveckla och förhandla om former för forskningens genomförande åvilar de enskilda forskarna. Avhandlingens kunskapsbidrag består i att sätta vetenskapens samhällskontrakt i relation dels till styrningen inom högskolesektorn sedan 1970-talet, dels genom att visa hur förhandlingar om självstyre i dag bedrivs. Vidare lämnas ett nytt empiriskt bidrag när det gäller forskares upplevelser av styrning i forskningen inom ett universitet, särskilt i relation till universitetets styrmodell. Genom att studien ser till relationerna mellan olika styrnivåer, och hur de påverkar forskare, är den ett komplement till den forskningspolitiska litteraturen som relativt sällan fokuserat på metoder, processer och förhållanden som är involverade i genomförandeprocesser på lägre nivå i den forskningspolitiska styrkedjan. I relation till förvaltningspolitiska studier och implementeringsforskning bidrar avhandlingen genom att koppla universitets­forskningen till den förvaltningspolitiska professionsmodellen och visa hur den praxis som styrningen utgått från är en del i kontraktrelationen. Vidare görs ett empiriskt bidrag till forskningen om organisationsstyrning och metagovernance. Genom att studien visar på forskningspolitikens möjligheter och gränser samt forskares förhållningssätt till styrsystemet har den vissa praktiska implikationer för forskningspolitik på olika nivåer. Legitimitet genom representation och i besluts­processerna, samt att styrningen utövas och formuleras utifrån vad forskarna upplever som lämplig nivå, är centralt för tillit och genomförbarhet. Forskningspolitik som innebär ryckighet i styrningen, processer och prioriteringar med svag vetenskaplig legitimitet samt komplicerade och omfattande administrativa processer leder till att legitimiteten och tilliten till systemet blir försvagad samtidigt som det har styrande effekt. Om sådana processer upptar för mycket resurser riskerar utrymmet för självstyre att minska alltför påtagligt. Som konsekvens kan det lustfyllda sökandet efter ny kunskap få litet utrymme. Det kan på sikt innebära att forskare lämnar akademin och att förutsättningarna för att möta framtida kunskapsbehov försämras. QC230508 Universitet som samhällsbyggare

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      Doctoral thesis . 2023
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    Authors: Gustafsson, Daniel;

    The password is the first line of defence in most modern web services, it is therefore critical to choose a strong password. Many previous studies have found patterns to improve in global users password creation but none have researched the patterns of Swedish users in particular. In this project, passwords of Swedish users were gathered from underground forums and analyzed to find if Swedish users create passwords differently from global users and if there are any weak patterns in their passwords. We found that Swedish users often use words or names found in a Swedish NLP corpus in their passwords as well as using lowercase letters more frequently than global users. We also found that several of the most popular Swedish websites use weak password policies which might contribute to Swedish users choosing weak passwords. Lösenordet är den första försvarslinjen i de flesta moderna nät tjänsterna, det är därför kritiskt att välja ett starkt lösenord. Många tidigare studier har upptäckt mönster som kan förbättras i globala användares lösenord men ingen har tidigare forskat på mönster hos just svenska användare. I det här projektet har vi samlat lösenord av svenska användare från olika undergroundforum och analyserat dem för att ta reda på om svenska användare skapar sina lösenord annorlunda från globala användare och ifall det finns några svaga mönster i lösenorden. Vi fann att svenska användare ofta använder ord eller namn från en svensk NLP korpus i sina lösenord och även att svenska användare använder små bokstäver i högre grad än globala användare. Vi fann även att flera av de mest populära svenska hemsidorna har svaga lösenordspolicys vilken kan bidra till att svenska användare väljer svaga lösenord.

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    Bachelor thesis . 2023
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      Publikationer från KTH
      Bachelor thesis . 2023
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    Authors: Fredrikson, Sara; Månsson, Clara;

    With the rapid advancements in the field of Natural Language Processing and Artificial Intelligence, several aspects of its use cases and impact on productivity are largely unexplored. Many of the recent machine learning models are based on an architecture called Transformers that allows for faster computation and for more context to be preserved. At the same time, tech companies face the dilemmas of how to navigate their code bases, spanning over millions of lines of code. The aim of this thesis is to investigate whether the implementation and fine-tuning of a Transformers-based model can be utilised to improve the code search process in a tech company, leading to improvements in developer productivity. Specifically, the thesis will evaluate the effectiveness of such implementation from a productivity perspective in terms of velocity, quality, and satisfaction. The research uses a mixed method design consisting of two distinct methodologies as well as analyses of quantitative and qualitative data. To assess the level of accuracy that can be obtained by optimising a Transformers-based model on internal data, an evaluative experiment with various internal datasets was conducted. The second methodology applied was a usability test, investigating potential impacts on velocity, quality, and satisfaction by testing a contextual code-search prototype with developers. Data from the tests was analysed through a heat map-, trade-off- and template analysis. Results indicate that a Transformers-based modes can be optimised for code search on internal data and has the potential to improve code search from the aspects of velocity, quality, and satisfaction. Den snabba utvecklingen inom områdena för Språlteknologi och Artificiell Intelligens har visat på stora framgångar men också lämnat utrymme för ytterligare forskning på dess användningsområden och inverkan på produktivitet. Många av de senaste maskininlärningsmodellerna använder sig av en arkitektur kallad Transformers. Denna arkitektur möjliggör snabbare bearbetning av data och är bättre på att ta hänsyn till kontext. Samtidigt står tech-bolagen inför stora utmaningar i att navigera sina kodbaser, vilka består av flera miljoner rader kod. Målet med denna uppsats är att undersöka huruvida implementering och fine-tuning av en Transformers-baserad modell kan användas för att förbättra kodsökningsprocessen i ett tech-bolag och därmed leda till förbättring av utvecklares produktivitet. Mer specifikt utvärderar uppsatsen en sådan implementation från ett produktivitetsperspektiv med hänsyn till dimensioner såsom hastighet, kvalitet och tillfredställelse. Uppsatsen använder sig av en mixad metodologi bestående av två distinkta metoder samt analys av både kvalitativ och kvantitativ data. För att utvärdera nivån av noggrannhet som kan uppnås genom implementation och optimering av en Transformers-baserad modell på intern data, genomfördes experiment på olika interna dataset. Den andra metoden består av ett usability test för att undersöka potentiella effekter på hastighet, kvalitet och tillfredställelse genom att testa en kontextuell kodsökningsprototyp med utvecklare. Data från testen analyserades genom en heat map, trade-off och template analys. Resultaten indikerar att en Transformers-baserad modell kan optimeras för kodsökningpå intern data och har möjlighet att förbättra kodsökning från perspektiven hastighet, kvalitet och tillfredställelse.

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      Publikationer från KTH
      Bachelor thesis . 2023
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    Authors: Frantzolas, Christos;

    With the rapid growth of e-commerce, enabling effective product recommendation systems and improving product search for shoppers plays a crucial role in driving customer satisfaction. Traditional product retrieval approaches have mainly relied on unimodal models focusing on text data. However, to capture auxiliary context and improve the accuracy of similarity predictions, it is crucial to explore architectures that can leverage additional sources of information, such as images. This thesis compares the performance of multi- and unimodal methods for product similarity prediction and product retrieval. Both approaches are applied to two e-commerce datasets, one containing English and another containing Swedish product descriptions. A pre-trained multi-modal model called CLIP is used as a feature extractor. Different models are trained on CLIP embeddings using either text-only, image-only or image-text inputs. An extension of triplet loss with margins is tested, along with various training setups. Given the lack of similarity labels between products, product similarity prediction is studied by measuring the performance of a K-Nearest Neighbour classifier implemented on features extracted by the trained models. The thesis results demonstrate that multi-modal architectures outperform unimodal models in predicting product similarity. The same is true for product retrieval. Combining textual and visual information seems to lead to more accurate predictions than models relying on only one modality. The findings of this research have considerable implications for e-commerce platforms and recommendation systems, providing insights into the effectiveness of multi-modal models for product-related tasks. Overall, the study contributes to the existing body of knowledge by highlighting the advantages of leveraging multiple sources of information for deep learning. It also presents recommendations for designing and implementing effective multi-modal architectures. I och med den snabba tillväxten av e-handel spelar att möjliggöra effektivare produktrekommendationssystem och att förbättra produktsök för konsumenter en viktig roll för att öka kundnöjdheten. Traditionella angreppsätt för produktsök har huvudsakligen tillförlitat sig på unimodala textmodeller. För att fånga ett bredare kontext och förbättra exaktheten av prediktioner av likhet mellan produkter är det viktigt att utforska arkitekturer som kan utnyttja fler informationskällor så som bilder. Den här avhandlingen jämför prestanda hos multimodala och unimodala metoder för produktlikhetsprediktioner och produktsök. Båda angreppsätten är tillämpade på två e-handelsdatamängder, en med engelska produktbeskrivningar och en med svenska. En förtränad multimodal modell kallad CLIP används för att skapa produktrepresentationer. Olika modeller har tränats på CLIPs representationer, antingen med enbart text, enbart bild eller både bild och text. En utökning av ett triplettmått med marginaler har testats som träningskriterium, i kombination med olika träningsinställningar. Givet en avsaknad av likhetsannoteringar mellan produkter så har produktlikhetsprediktion studerats genom att mäta prestandan av K-närmaste-grannar-klassificering genom att använda vektor-representationer från de tränade modellerna. Avhandlingens resultat visar att multimodala arkitekturer överträffar unimodala modeller för produktlikhetsprediktion. Att kombinera textuell och visuell information verkar leda till mer korrekta prediktioner jämfört med modeller som förlitar sig på endast en modalitet. Forskningsresultaten har markanta implikationer för e-handelsplattformar och rekommendationssystem, genom att tillhandahålla insikter i multimodala modellers effektivitet i produktrelaterade uppgifter. Överlag så bidrar studien till den existerande litteraturen genom att förtydliga fördelarna av att utnyttja flera informationskällor för djupinlärning. Den resulterar också i rekommendationer för att designa och implementera effektiva multimodala modellarkitekturer.

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326 Research products
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Wickberg, Adam; Lidström, Susanna; Lagerkvist, Amanda; Meyer, Tirza; +4 Authors

    Over the past half century, the global environment has become subject to an accelerated pace of mediation and datafication. This ongoing transition has become so comprehensive that the knowledge, management and governance of the Earth system is dependent on enormous flows of data from a “vast machine” of measuring tools. These processes combined have formed what we call a “mediated planet,” subject to interpretation and shared human decision-making – that should ideally be democratic, inclusive and accountable. As environmental datafication continues to accelerate, private corporations are gaining increasing influence on and power over the associated collections of data. This is a cause for concern, as the global environmental commons are a public interest of concern to all people. This article argues for the need to critically research the challenges and risks associated with the rapid datafication of the environment, specifically in relation to the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for climate change (13), the ocean (14), biodiversity (15) and inclusive and accountable institutions (16). More knowledge is needed of how the SDGs and their supporting networks influence data-generation on a mediated planet, and how issues of access to and use of environmental data, as well as data ownership and AI implementation, can best be navigated. We contend that such knowledge can help enhance the democratic potential of the SDGs to build public trust and secure broad participation in global environmental governance in ways that also support peaceful and inclusive societies, as promised by SDG 16. QC 20240115

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    Publikationer från KTH
    Article . 2024 . Peer-reviewed
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      Publikationer från KTH
      Article . 2024 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Fredrik Bertilsson;

    Det här kapitlet vägleds av ett intresse för hur humanistisk kunskap hargjorts användbar i det svenska försvaret i förhållande till informationsteknologiskalandvinningar och nya former av så kallad informationspåverkanunder slutet av 1900-talet. Informationspåverkan avser kort sagtanvändningen av (vilseledande) information i syfte att påverka den allmännaopinionen, demokratiska processer och det politiska beslutsfattandet. Målet med kapitlet är att bidra till en bättre förståelse av denbetydelse som humanistisk kunskap har haft i det svenska försvaret ochdärmed den svenska staten under slutet av 1900-talet. Jag studerar kunskapsom vanligen knyts till utbildningen och forskningen inom humanioraoch humanistiska fakulteter vid universitet och högskolor. Det handlarsärskilt om filosofisk kunskap om bedömningen eller värderingen av argumentoch utsagor i text samt källkritik. Källkritiken utvecklades ursprungligenav historiker under 1800-talet och har som vetenskaplig metod haftett stort inflytande på historievetenskapen i de nordiska länderna, kanskesärskilt i Sverige. QC 20230913 Humanistisk kunskap i den svenska försvarsforskningen: Humanvetenskapen vid FOA 5

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Publikationer från K...arrow_drop_down
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    Publikationer från KTH
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    https://doi.org/10.22188/krite...
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Part of book or chapter of book . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Piahanau, Aliaksandr;

    Even a short breakdown in fuel supplies can have profound and dramatic consequences for modern economies. This paper explores a major coal shortage in Central Europe after WWI which shook local societies for two years. The dissolution of the Habsburg Empire in 1918 provides a narrower context to this study, while its immediate focus lies upon the development of diplomatic and economic relationships between Czechoslovakia – a WWI victor and an important coal exporter, and Hungary – a war losing state that was a net coal importer. This paper underlines the scale of the Hungarian reliance on fuels from Czechoslovakia, and suggests that this dependency was one of the chief arguments that motivated Budapest to cede Slovakia to Prague’s control and, more generally, to accept the peace terms proposed at the Paris conference. It is safe to conclude that economic considerations played a much greater, if not dominant, role in the adoption of the peace treaty of Trianon of 1920 in Hungary. Overall, the paper demonstrates that cross- border energy interdependence substantially influenced diplo-matic relations in Central Europe immediately after WWI, privile-ging coal-exporting states over coal-importing states. QC 20230607

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    Publikationer från KTH
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    Diplomacy and Statecraft
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      Diplomacy and Statecraft
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    Authors: Millan, Matteo;

    Shooting societies organized by town citizens (burghers) were considered the traditional guardians of many autonomous settlements in Central Europe from the Middle Ages up to the late nineteenth century. In seeking to identify the causes of their decline in late Habsburg Hungary, this article draws attention to a variety of modernizing drives that undermined the stability of burgher marksmanship. One was the emerging Hungarian nation-state, which hindered the development of paramilitary citizen groups by limiting local self-governance and freedom of association. Another was the modern appeal to ethnic homogenization in the form of Magyarization. It aroused hostility towards the burgher riflemen because of their frequent use of the German language and loyalty to the Habsburgs, and not to the Magyar nation. Although the surviving burgher shooting societies had espoused Magyar nationalism by the early 1900s, they nonetheless maintained their elitism, excluding the growing urban populations from membership. At the same time, the burgher riflemen failed to engage sufficiently actively in rifle training to secure the support of the Defence Ministry and the radical Magyar nationalists. Instead, they remained traditional venues for socializing and networking for the increasingly isolated ennobled petty bourgeoisie. This created a situation where the burgher marksmen became marginal players not only in urban political life but also in Hungary's rapidly developing paramilitary culture. The story of the decline of the burgher shooting societies sheds new light on the ambiguities of modernization, but also demonstrates the weakness of societal militarization in pre-1914 Central Europe. Research for this article was supported by the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (G.A. 677199 – ERCStG2015 ‘The Dark Side of the Belle Époque: Political Violence and Armed Associations before the First World War’)QC 20230608

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    Publikationer från KTH
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    The Slavonic and East European Review
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Publikationer från KTH
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      The Slavonic and East European Review
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    Authors: Book, Love;

    The demand for automation of simple tasks is constantly increasing. While some tasks are easy to automate because the logic is fixed and the process is streamlined, other tasks are harder because the performance of the task is heavily reliant on the judgment of a human expert. Matching a consultant to an offer from a client is one such task, in which case the expert is either a manager to the consultants or someone within HR at the company. One way to approach this task is to model the specific domain of interest using natural language processing. If we can capture the relationships between relevant skills and phrases within the specific domain, we could potentially use the resulting embeddings in a consultant to offer matching scheme. In this paper, we propose a key phrase-based web scraping approach to collect the data we need for a domain-specific corpus. To retrieve the key phrases needed as prompts for web scraping, we propose using the transformer-based library KeyBERT on limited domain-specific in house data belonging to the consultant firm B3 Indes, in order to retrieve the most important phrases in their respective contexts. Facebook's Word2vec based language model fasttext is then used on the processed corpus to create the fixed word embeddings. We also investigate numerous different approaches for selecting the right key phrases for web scraping in a human similarity comparison scheme, as well as comparisons to a larger pretrained general domain fasttext model. We show that utilizing key phrases for a domain-specific fasttext model could be beneficial compared to using a larger pretrained model. The results are not consistently conclusive under the current analytical framework. The results also indicate that KeyBERT is beneficial when selecting the key phrases compared to the randomized sampling of relevant phrases; however, the results are not conclusive. Efterfrågan för automatisering av enkla uppgifter efterfrågas alltmer. Medan vissa uppgifter är lätta att automatisera eftersom logiken är fast och processen är tydlig, är andra svårare eftersom utförandet av uppgiften starkt beror på en människas expertis. Att matcha en konsult till ett erbjudande från en klient är en sådan uppgift, där experten är antingen en chef för konsulterna eller någon inom HR på företaget. En metod för att hantera denna uppgift är att modellera det specifika området av intresse med hjälp av maskininlärningsbaserad språkteknologi. Om vi kan fånga relationerna mellan relevanta färdigheter och fraser inom det specifika området, skulle vi potentiellt kunna använda de resulterande inbäddningarna i ett matchningsprocess mellan konsulter och uppdrag. I denna rapport föreslås en nyckelordsbaserad webbskrapnings-metod för att samla in data som behövs för ett domänspecifikt korpus. För att hämta de nyckelord som behövs som input för webbskrapning, föreslår vi att använda transformator-baserade biblioteket KeyBERT på begränsad domänspecifik data från konsultbolaget B3 Indes, detta för att hämta de viktigaste fraserna i deras respektive sammanhang. Sedan används Facebooks Word2vec baserade språkmodell fasttext på det bearbetade korpuset för att skapa statiska inbäddningar. Vi undersöker också olika metoder för att välja rätt nyckelord för webbskrapning i en likhets-jämnförelse mot mänskliga experter, samt jämförelser med en större förtränad fasttext-modell som inte är domänspecifik. Vi visar att användning av nyckelord för webbskrapning för träning av en domänspecifik fasttext-modell skulle kunna vara fördelaktigt jämnfört med en förtränad modell, men resutaten är inte konsekvent signifikanta enligt det begränsade analytiska ramverket. Resultaten indikerar också att KeyBERT är fördelaktigt vid valet av nyckelord jämfört med slumpmässigt urval av relevanta fraser, men dessa resultat är inte heller helt entydiga.

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      Publikationer från KTH
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    Introduction The waterfront of Stockholm, one of Europe's fastest-growing cities, stands at the forefront of climate change challenges. As such, there is a pressing need for innovative solutions and resilient urban design. The SOS Climate Waterfront research project gathered international experts and local representatives, coming from different disciplines to work together in May-June 2022 to discuss, explore proposals and design Sustainable Open Solutions (SOS). This book explores three urban sites in Stockholm, holding significant implications for the city's waterfront— Lövholmen, Frihamnen, and Södra Värtan. During the workshop, SOS Climate Waterfront participants, mainly European researchers, analyzed future challenges, raised new questions, and depicted solutions, which can now contribute to cross-country comparisons in a larger EU-framework. The three sites are not only driven by the demand for more housing but also face crucial issues related to cultural heritage, climate change, landscape ecology, and social development. Achieving a delicate balance between these aspects and economic interests presents a significant task for the city. The waterfront of Stockholm holds substantial relevance in the context of climate change and its impact on coastal areas. Thus, analysis of the Swedish context, based on data collected and on-site knowledge sustains a deeper understanding of the challenges and opportunities that lie ahead. Stockholm is expected to be affected by the impacts of climate change, including temperature increases, changing precipitation patterns, and the potential for more frequent cloudbursts. While the rising sea level is a long-term challenge rather than an immediate concern, increasing risks of extreme weather events and flooding were taken in consideration. Stockholm rests on two different bodies of water, at a location where the Baltic Sea (Östersjön in Swedish) with brackish water meets Lake Mälaren, which is an important provider of freshwater for the larger Stockholm area. As the lyrics of a popular contemporary Swedish song (by Robert Broberg) describe it: “the city is full of water”. However, to ensure that the ecological and chemical status will be maintained, in facing future challenges in terms of urbanisation and climate change, much attention has been paid to ensure the preservation of the water quality of the Mälaren Lake, a vital water source for two million people. The city values its water and continuously invests in improving the situation (e.g. the new sluice at Slussen). The activities carried out in the SOS Climate Waterfront workshop in Stockholm integrated this relationship to water as well as the continuing land-rise, the balance of which adds complexity to the sea level modelling and therefore also to the anticipations and scenarios for the future. In this book, the authors explore innovative strategies and design proposals to tackle these challenges while preserving the cultural identity and heritage value of the sites. Researchers from various European cities, supported by experts and academic lectures, analyze extensive input materials and information, ranging from planning documents and historical records to consultation reports and city visions. By drawing upon multidisciplinary backgrounds and experiences, the researchers identify the socioeconomic and environmental qualities of each site, ultimately developing site design concepts and solutions that address climate change challenges, the maintenance of cultural identities, and the protection of biodiversity. Throughout the book, the proposed designs emphasize the importance of finding a balance between preserving cultural heritage, the values of local communities, the stimulating economic growth, and promotion of sustainable urban development. Key elements include the reuse of existing infrastructure, the integration of green-blue schemes, the improvement of biodiversity, and the creation of vibrant and multi-functional neighbourhoods that connect people to each other and their surroundings. While design solutions present promising approaches, their implementation and the institutional challenges that may arise in specific city contexts remain external to the results presented here. The book acknowledges the need for further research and highlights the shared recognition among the workshop participants regarding the gaps and blind spots in their findings. The following chapters of the book delve into climate change in Sweden, the role of culture and arts in the environmental movement, and specific case studies and design proposals for each site. By exploring these diverse perspectives, this book aims to contribute to the ongoing discourse on sustainable urban design and planning, to inspire innovative approaches in addressing complex challenges faced by Stockholm in the future. PART 1 of the book offers a comprehensive understanding of climate change in Sweden, street fishing in Stockholm, and the role of culture and arts in the environmental movement in the Nordic Region and internationally. Furthermore, the lessons from Stockholm and its surroundings in this report draw on presentations, by professionals and researchers from various fields, made during the workshop. Some of these lessons have been written into interesting articles, introduced below. The chapter “Climate change in Sweden” by Magnus Joelsson from the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) provides an updated analysis with data and the context for discussing climate change in Sweden. The text makes the distinction between weather and climate, referring to the expression “Climate is what you expect, weather is what you get” that Mark Twain is said to have coined. Moreover, calling for actions by emphasising that the trend of climate change is expected to continue, both globally and in Sweden. What will happen in the far future still depends on our actions, now and in the future. The contribution entitled “Urban nature does not stop at the waterfront, neither should urban planning, a case study of street fishing in Stockholm” raises questions about how planning and strategies for waterfront areas in cities should consider more perspectives from a wider group of interests. It discusses how urban dwellers live with water, with a focus on recreational fishing and what this use entails. The authors (Anja Moum Rieser, from KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Wieben Johannes Boonstra and Rikard Hedling, both from Uppsala University) go beyond the human-centric view and expand the gaze to other species’ needs and also incorporating the body of water in planning for the urban waterfront areas. The chapter “The role of culture and arts in the environmental movement in the Nordic Region and internationally” by Elisavet Papageorgiou and Iwona Preis from Intercult, discusses artistic perspectives on sustainability and climate change. This focuses on how art and culture can raise awareness, provide inspiring actions, and promote social cohesion around sustainable practices. Drawing on experiences from projects aiming to invite and engage community dialogues, they argue that artistic strategies can challenge dominant narratives and promote alternative visions for a sustainable future. The contribution “Sense the Marsh” by Thelma Dethelfsen from KTH The Royal Institute of Technology, emphasises the importance of architecture and landscape design in creating adaptive and resilient strategies to manage flooding and sea level rise. The study focuses on how designs can encourage interaction and awareness with the surroundings. Thereby highlighting the interfaces between humans and nature and raising questions about how flooding can be used as a quality and catalyst to attract more people to an area. The resulting design provides an opportunity to experience nature though the design and architectural solutions, situated on the border between human, non-human species and nature. In PART 2, readers will explore the detailed design proposals developed by different groups for the urban sites in focus. These proposals aim to intertwine sustainability, cultural identity, and economic interests, offering insights into the potential for resilient and vibrant urban spaces. By assessing existing conditions on three sites analysed in Stockholm, including Lövholmen, Frihamnen, and Södra Värtan, the teams participating in the workshop actively contributed to the analysis of the sites and development of design solutions for the areas, in the end forming strategies for better preparedness for future challenges and better lives for the inhabitants. Lövholmen is located in the north-western part of Liljeholmen, one of the major developmental centres in Stockholm. The area is currently a closed-off industrial site, but the municipality’s intention is to redevelop it into a mixed urban space with homes, workplaces, shops, schools, and more. It's expected that 1500 new homes will be built in the area. Many of the current industrial buildings are empty and in bad shape. While some of these will be replaced with housing, other industrial buildings have heritage value and should be protected during the development, after which a new use should be found for them. Frihamnen is, together with the Södra Värtan project, part of the larger development of ”Norra Djurgårdsstaden”, the Stockholm Royal Seaport. Frihamnen is located to the south of Värtahamnen and is in turn strongly connected to Loudden in the south. The municipality plans for the area to contain approximately 1700 homes, 4000 workplaces and 75,000 m2 of retail and office space. Some of the existing businesses in Frihamnen will remain, but much of the existing infrastructure is planned to be removed. The harbour no longer handles freight shipping, but passenger ships will continue to depart from the harbour (Frihamnspiren). Södra Värtan is planned to contain 1500 apartments, 20 preschool departments, 155,000 m2 of office and retail space, as well as 10,000 m2 of parks and a 600 m long waterfront walkway. The new development is intended to co-exist with the activities in the harbour, which creates challenges such as the blocking of noise stemming from the cruise ships. The walkways along the waterfront are planned to have shops and restaurants. The contributions of the articles, together with the SOS Climate Waterfront teams’ analysis of the three sites in Stockholm, provides relevant and timely interdisciplinary efforts to co-create novel solutions and future strategies to manage the climate challenges ahead. The solutions relate to the history of the urban territory, actors involved (or those excluded) and changes, over time, of planning ideals. A key theme is how to plan by creating inclusive strategies for the future by involving representatives of diverse interests, competences, and future visions for the sites. The consequences of climate change are affecting these different stakeholders and citizens in a wide range of ways, so including them in the process is crucial. This also includes the inclusion of future generations’ views on urban transformation. The largest challenge is to create new, novel solutions where these human interests, as well as those of local nature and non-human species, can be incorporated, in an effort to plan and design for a mitigation and management of the consequences of climate change. As we embark on this journey of exploration and innovation, we invite readers to delve into the pages of this book, where interdisciplinary research, creative design, and a shared commitment to sustainable urban development and decarbonisation strategies converge. Together, let us envision a future where cities thrive, harmoniously balancing their heritage, environment, and economic aspirations. QC 20231115 SOS Climate Waterfront https://cordis.europa.eu/project/id/823901

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