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  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage
  • Publications
  • 2017-2021
  • Thesis
  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Silvia Blanco Pons;
    Publisher: Universitat Politècnica de València
    Country: Spain

    [ES] La RA consiste en la superposición de elementos virtuales sobre el entorno real, de manera que el usuario percibe estos elementos como si formaran parte de la realidad que está visualizando. Las aplicaciones de RA en dispositivos móviles permiten visualizar el contenido virtual a través de la cámara del dispositivo. La RA es una herramienta de divulgación muy potente ya que permite añadir a la realidad cualquier tipo de información, desde un simple texto informativo a un modelo 3D interactivo. Tiene infinitas utilidades, puede servir de guía en un museo, puede mostrar la recreación de un monumento destruido, o como en el caso de estudio aquí presentado, ayudar a la interpretación de pinturas rupestres. Esta tesis parte de la idea de que la RA puede mejorar mucho la interpretación del arte rupestre sin alterar ni dañar las pinturas. Puede servir para atraer a un público mayor, dar a conocer la historia de las pinturas rupestres y que al mismo tiempo el visitante tenga una experiencia mucho más enriquecedora. A lo largo de la tesis se ha estudiado en profundidad la técnica de visualización de RA mediante dispositivos móviles. Se han analizado las diferentes librerías de programación mediante casos de estudio en entornos reales y examinado los factores que pueden afectar al reconocimiento de las pinturas. Se ha desarrollado una aplicación de RA aplicada a un caso real de pinturas rupestres y posteriormente ha sido evaluada por un grupo de personas. Finalmente, se ha estudiado el efecto de la luz solar y sus cambios a lo largo del día sobre el reconocimiento de imágenes en entornos al aire libre. Este trabajo proporciona un punto de partida para el desarrollo de aplicaciones de RA aplicadas a la difusión del patrimonio cultural, especialmente centrado en el arte rupestre, un entorno que sufre de unas dificultades añadidas debido a su localización, dificultad de reconocimiento de puntos característicos en las pinturas y los cambios en la luz solar, problemas que se han tratado de resolver a lo largo del estudio. Las principales conclusiones han sido muy favorables, partiendo de librerías de programación disponibles y gratuitas. Se han podido desarrollar un conjunto de aplicaciones de RA en diferentes lugares. Las valoraciones han sido muy positivas, los usuarios que han probado las aplicaciones afirman que la interpretación de las pinturas les resulta más fácil y consiguen entender mejor el propósito de las mismas. El principal inconveniente encontrado es la falta de conocimiento sobre esta técnica y la pérdida de realismo en algunos casos debido a la oclusión, es decir, que los objetos virtuales no se posicionen por detrás de los objetos reales. La buena noticia es que esta tecnología evoluciona muy rápido y durante el desarrollo de la tesis ha habido avances muy grandes, entre ellos, el desarrollo de nuevas librerías de programación desarrolladas por Google y Apple, que proporcionan las herramientas necesarias para crear aplicaciones muy potentes e immersivas, donde el usuario se sentirá parte de los entornos creados. [CA] La RA consisteix en la superposició d'elements virtuals sobre l'entorn real, de manera que l'usuari percep aquests elements com si formaren part de la realitat que està visualitzant. Les aplicacions de RA en dispositius mòbils permeten visualitzar el contingut virtual a través de la cambra del dispositiu. La RA és una eina de divulgació molt potent ja que permet afegir a la realitat qualsevol tipus d'informació, des d'un simple text informatiu a un model 3D interactiu. Té infinites utilitats, pot servir de guia en un museu, pot mostrar la recreació d'un monument destruït, o com en el cas d'estudi ací presentat, ajudar a la interpretació de pintures rupestres. Aquesta tesi parteix de la idea que la RA pot millorar molt la interpretació de l'art rupestre sense alterar ni danyar les pintures. Pot servir per a atraure a un públic major, donar a conéixer la història de les pintures rupestres i que al mateix temps el visitant tinga una experiència molt més enriquidora. Al llarg de la tesi s'ha estudiat en profunditat la tècnica de visualització de RA mitjançant dispositius mòbils. S'han analitzat les diferents llibreries de programació mitjançant casos d'estudi en entorns reals i analitzat els factors que poden afectar el reconeixement de les pintures. S'ha desenvolupat una aplicació de RA aplicada a un cas real de pintures rupestres i posteriorment ha sigut avaluada per un grup de persones. Finalment, s'ha estudiat l'efecte de la llum solar i els seus canvis al llarg del dia sobre el reconeixement d'imatges en entorns a l'aire lliure. Aquest treball proporciona un punt de partida per al desenvolupament d'aplicacions de RA aplicades a la difusió del patrimoni cultural, especialment centrat en l'art rupestre, un entorn que pateix d'unes dificultats afegides a causa de la seua localització, dificultat de reconeixement de punts característics en les pintures i els canvis en la llum solar, problemes que s'han tractat de resoldre al llarg de l'estudi. Les principals conclusions han sigut molt favorables, partint de llibreries de programació disponibles i gratuïtes. S'han pogut desenvolupar un conjunt d'aplicacions de RA en diferents llocs. Les valoracions han sigut molt positives, els usuaris que han provat les aplicacions afirmen que la interpretació de les pintures els resulta més fàcil i aconsegueixen entendre millor el propòsit d'aquestes. El principal inconvenient trobat és la falta de coneixement sobre aquesta tècnica i la perduda de realisme en alguns casos a causa de l'oclusió, és a dir, que els objectes virtuals no es posicionen per darrere dels objectes reals. La bona notícia és que aquesta tecnologia evoluciona molt ràpid i durant el desenvolupament de la tesi hi ha hagut avanços molt grans, entre ells, el desenvolupament de noves llibreries de programació per Google i Apple, que proporcionen les eines necessàries per a crear aplicacions molt potents i immersives, on l'usuari se sentirà part dels entorns creats. [EN] AR consists of superimposing virtual elements on the real environment, so that the user perceives these elements as if they were part of the reality they are looking at. AR applications on smartphones allow virtual content to be visualised through the device's camera. AR is a very powerful tool for dissemination as it allows any type of information to be added to reality, from a simple informative text to an interactive 3D model. It can be used as a guide in a museum, it can show the recreation of a destroyed monument, or, as in the case study presented here, it can help in the interpretation of cave paintings. This thesis is based on the idea that AR can greatly enhance the interpretation of rock art without affecting or damaging the paintings. It can be used to attract a wider audience, to introduce the history of the rock art paintings and at the same time provide the visitor with a much more enriching experience. Throughout the thesis, the technique of AR visualisation using mobile devices has been studied in-depth. The different programming libraries have been analysed by means of case studies in real environments as well as the factors that can affect the paintings recognition. An AR application applied to a real case of rock art paintings has been developed and subsequently evaluated by a group of people. Finally, the effect of sunlight and its changes throughout the day on image recognition in outdoor environments has been studied. This work provides a starting point for the AR applications development applied to the dissemination of cultural heritage, especially focused on rock art, an environment that suffers from additional difficulties due to its location, the difficulty of characteristic points recognition and changes in sunlight, problems that have been tried to solve throughout the study. The main outcomes have been very favourable, using freely available programming libraries, and it has been possible to develop a set of AR applications in different places. The evaluations have been very positive, with users who have tested the applications confirming that the interpretation of the paintings is easier for them and they can better understand the purpose of the paintings. The major drawback is the lack of knowledge about this technique and the loss of realism in some cases due to occlusion, i.e. the virtual objects are not positioned behind the real objects. The good news is that this technology is evolving very fast and during the development of the thesis there have been great advances, among them, the development of new programming libraries developed by Google and Apple, which provide the necessary tools to create very powerful and immersive applications, where the user will feel part of the virtual environments created.

  • Authors: 
    Mavracic, Juraj;
    Publisher: Apollo - University of Cambridge Repository
    Country: United Kingdom

    In this work, long standing challenges in the research on amorphous materials have been identified. In particular, the lack of reliable data repositories for properties and structures of amorphous materials significantly limits the possibilities for research. As a consequence, state-of-the-art data-driven methods, which have been widely used for crystalline materials for decades, can hitherto only be used in most limited capacity in the domain of amorphous materials. A pathway towards a resolution of these problems is proposed in this work. The overall methodology relies on the extraction of information from primary-literature sources, i.e., scientific articles. In this way, the entirety of knowledge in the domain, which has been published in the past, can, in principle, be utilized for new scientific discovery. The goal of the work presented in this thesis is to enable state-of-the-art data-driven research for the domain of amorphous materials science. In order to achieve this goal, novel contributions, in the form of new methodologies and their validation, in three distinct fields have been achieved. First, in the domain of information science, the table understanding problem has been approached. Based on previous research in the field, a complete methodology for the standardization of complex table structures is delivered, in the form of the stand-alone software library TableDataExtractor. Secondly, in the domain of data-driven research in the chemical sciences, and based on previous research in the field, new methodologies were developed for the extraction of physical and chemical properties for chemical compounds. For the first time, hierarchies of nested physical properties are extracted from primary literature sources, and without the need for manually written grammatical rules for extraction. As many as 18 interrelated, nested properties of crystalline compounds are extracted to validate the methodology, with an achieved overall precision of 92 %. Finally, the developed methodologies were applied in the domain of amorphous materials. An independent database of glass transition temperatures for arbitrary inorganic compounds has been generated, based on primary literature sources. This has subsequently been used to predict glass transition temperatures for arbitrary inorganic compounds with high accuracy. The presented results validate the developed methodology for overcoming limitations in amorphous materials research. At the same time, the developed methods lay the foundation for seamless utilization of primary literature sources in data-driven research frameworks.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Curley, Daniel Patrick;
    Publisher: NUI Galway
    Country: Ireland

    The Ó Cellaig lordship of Uí Maine was a substantial political territory and influential cultural power in later medieval Connacht. The central aim of this thesis is to identify and reconstruct the physical appearance of the Ó Cellaig lordly centres from their emergence as one of the principal offshoots of the Uí Maine in c.1100, to the demise of the lordship around the year c.1600. Due to the terms of the present writer’s Irish Research Council Employment-Based Scholarship, a subsidiary aim of the thesis is to carry out a review of how this research can be of value, in economic and social terms, to the present-day communities that inhabit the Ó Cellaig lordship today. This study initially examines the historical background of the lordship, and this achieved two things. Firstly, it identified for the first time a series of Ó Cellaig lordly centres for further investigation. Secondly, it enabled the defining of the physical boundaries of this territory at two key points in the history of these eastern Connacht lords, something which has not been systematically undertaken before. Thereafter, aspects of the physical landscape of later medieval Uí Maine were reconstructed, and this was used as the basis to explore the primary resources and then the economic conditions which underpinned this inland Gaelic lordship during the period. The present writer then reviewed the settlement forms usually chosen by the later medieval Gaelic elite, with a view to understanding what morphologies to consider when inspecting the individual Ó Cellaig lordly centres on the ground. In doing so, a new settlement form was identified, coined here as the bódhún, while initial insights were garnered on why certain sites were selected by the Gaelic elite during the high medieval period particularly, prior to the greater cultural uniformity that manifested with the adoption of the tower house castle in the late medieval lordship. The focus of the research then concentrated on the investigation of eleven representative case study lordly centres, thematically grouped due to their siting on or near lakes, in close proximity to rivers, or their siting on important medieval regional roadways. This approach produced a number of new insights into our understanding of the Ó Cellaig lordship, particularly the elite settlement forms chosen by the lords of Uí Maine throughout the period, in the form of crannóga, promontory forts, moated sites, ringforts and cashels. It also highlighted the continuity of use at many of these lordly centres through time, as well as the dynamic cultural landscapes which developed and were maintained around these focal points. More than this, the multidisciplinary approach has enabled a reevaluation of the accepted historical narrative of the late medieval Ó Cellaig lordship, showing the value which archaeology can provide in reconstructing the medieval past. Finally, important new considerations on the spatial organisation of Gaelic lordly centres more generally were brought to light, while this study also serves to add to the argument that when a researcher visits a later medieval Gaelic lordly centre on the ground, the principal settlement forms which survive for inspection come in the form of crannóga, promontory forts, moated sites, ringforts and cashels during the high medieval period, while late medieval elite settlement conforms largely to the construction of tower house castles. 2023-06-22

  • Publication . Thesis . 2021 . Embargo End Date: 16 Dec 2021
    Authors: 
    Clausen, Thomas;
    Publisher: Apollo - University of Cambridge Repository
    Country: United Kingdom

    Roland Freisler was a leading Nazi lawyer, civil servant, and judge. The main focus of the thesis is on Freisler���s hitherto neglected experiences during the Weimar Republic and his role in facilitating the transition of the German legal system from the democratic Rechtsstaat to the Nazi dictatorship. The first chapter (1893-1920) examines Freisler���s experiences during the First World War and its revolutionary aftermath and sheds doubt on the much-repeated claim that he had ���converted��� to Bolshevism. The second chapter (1920-1922) provides a close reading of his doctoral dissertation and early academic work. The close collaboration with his supervisor, Justus Wilhelm Hedemann, as well as stellar grades paved the ground for a stellar legal career. As the third chapter (1924-1930) shows, these ambitions were squashed and Freisler began to pursue an alternative career as a leading Nazi lawyer, who broke down the boundaries between street, courtroom, and city parliament in order to undermine the Novembersystem. The fourth chapter (1930-1932) looks at Freisler���s breakthrough during the early 1930s when he became a leading local politician as well as an indispensable legal advisor. The fifth chapter (1933) provides a close reading of Freisler���s role in the Nazi seizure of power, which shows that the especially violent period of transition is instrumental for understanding the nature of legal politics in the ���Third Reich���. The penultimate chapter (1933-1942) traces the residues of these Weimar experiences through a selection of case studies from Freisler���s time as Staatssekret��r in the Prussian and Reich Ministry of Justice. The final chapter (1942-1945) does the same for his stint as President of the Volksgerichtshof. Having fallen from grace as a senior civil servant, the Volksgerichtshof signified a chance for redemption and, in some sense, a return to the performative struggles of the Weimar period. Gates Cambridge Max Planck Institute for Legal History and Legal Theory Trinity College, Cambridge

  • Publication . Other literature type . Thesis . Doctoral thesis . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Gundersen, Ingar Mørkestøl;
    Publisher: Zenodo

    A growing body of climate data points towards a significant climate cooling in the northern hemisphere during the 6th century AD. Linked to multiple explosive volcanic eruptions between AD 536-547, the cooling event is the coldest that has been documented for the last 2000 years and seems to have persisted, to varying degrees, well into the latter half of the 6th century. Several researchers have claimed that the 6th-century cooling must have resulted in extensive crop failure throughout Scandinavia, followed by famine, plagues, and social unrest. One hypothesis suggests that the population of the Scandinavian Peninsula may have been halved as a result. The combination of prolonged cooling and presumed crop failure is often compared to Norse myths about the Fimbulwinter, but critics argue that the Fimbulwinter hypothesis is rife with the uncritical use of climate data, a lack of source criticism and deterministic conclusions. In many ways, the ongoing discourse follows in line with previous discourses in archaeology, revolving around an artificial dichotomy between crisis and continuity. In this thesis, I examine the climatic and archaeological premises for the Fimbulwinter hypothesis and discuss it against developing theoretical frameworks within the environmental humanities. By using vulnerability and resilience as analytical tools, the subsistence and settlement patterns of selected landscapes are analysed against the possibility of crop failure and famine, with emphasis on the Gudbrandsdalen valley and the Lake Mjøsa region in the inlands of eastern Norway. I conclude that climate cooling had the potential to critically impact some areas, while others were seemingly less affected. These results suggest significant regional diversity in the consequences and adaptations in relation to the 6th-century cooling event. The hypothesis of a halving of the population is up for revision, but the crisis narrative still cannot be fully discounted. This thesis is also available in the Zenodo archive: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5782896

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Milan Mikolaj van Lange;
    Country: Netherlands

    That World War II is connected to emotions seems self-evident. But what did this relationship entail? Did it change over time? And how can we know such things? Milan van Lange’s PhD-thesis ‘Emotional Imprints: A Computer-assisted Analysis of War-related Emotions in Dutch Parliamentary Debates, 1945–1989’ offers a creative and innovative perspective on ‘things we think we know’ regarding emotions related to the aftermath of World War II in the Netherlands. ‘Emotional Imprints’ investigates the role of emotions in the post-war political engagement with the war’s consequences. By applying text mining to identify and quantify emotional expressions in thousands of digitised historical documents, Van Lange analyses not only whether emotions were present, but also how they were expressed in parliamentary debates on people who experienced the long-term effects of the war, such as former collaborators and war criminals, the anti-Nazi resistance, and various groups of war victims. Outcomes of this investigation show how emotions were never absent in the post-war sources analysed. The thesis provides an empirically supported farewell to received wisdoms about a ‘silent’ period in the 1950s, or a strong ‘emotionalisation’ in the 1970s. Rather than emotions making history themselves, politicians gave emotions a role in discussing contemporary matters. This role evolved from ‘descriptive’ to ‘appraising’ and ultimately ‘distant’ and ‘abstract’. The thesis displays how historical research can be enhanced by (re)sources, methods, and ideas from various fields, ranging from social psychology to computer linguistics. ‘Emotional Imprints’ makes an original contribution to methodological innovation highly relevant to historical research – especially in times of mass-digitisation and an increasing availability of digital-born sources.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Isabella Fagundes;
    Publisher: EDUFU - Editora da Universidade Federal de Uberlandia

    CAPES - Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior Esta dissertação tem o intuito de compreender o funcionamento discursivo do/no sistema de inteligência artificial (IA) do ELLA - English Language Learning Laboratory, um laboratório virtual para aprendizagem de língua inglesa (LI) como língua estrangeira (LE) que está sendo desenvolvido pela Universidade Federal de Uberlândia e que conta com participação de pesquisadores do Instituto Federal do Triângulo Mineiro. Participam e participaram da equipe docentes e pesquisadoras(pesquisadores) de diversas áreas, o que possibilitou que os temas e as inquietações referentes à Linguística Aplicada, ao discurso, à língua propriamente dita, à IA fossem problematizados e trazidos à baila das discussões dentro do laboratório. É do interior dessas discussões que surge o tema dessa dissertação. O ELLA é um freeware, cujo sistema de IA é pensado para interagir com a(o) estudante dando um feedback quando a(o) mesma(o) enuncia oralmente em LI. No processo de criação do laboratório, são mobilizadas teorias em Linguística Aplicada, Análise de Discurso, Programação, Inteligência Artificial, Pensamento Decolonial, dentre outras, que também fundamentam o presente estudo, e a partir das quais passamos a questionar como funciona a dimensão discursiva da e na programação nas condições do laboratório. As perguntas de pesquisa que objetivamos responder no estudo são: como o processador de linguagem natural do sistema de IA comportar-se-á ao transcrever a LI falada como LE, enunciada por sujeitos em processos iniciais de aprendizagem? Isto é, traços (fonológicos, lexicais, sintáticos) da língua portuguesa (LP) como língua materna (LM) desses sujeitos serão um empecilho nas transcrições do processamento de linguagem natural (PLN)? Esse processador se baseia em relações semânticas e discursivas para a transcrição? Como funcionará a dimensão discursiva no sistema de conversação entre humano e IA no ELLA? Para respondê-las, elencamos como objetivo geral investigar como poderá ocorrer o funcionamento discursivo no ELLA, mediante a ferramenta de PLN no contexto do laboratório, enquanto que os específicos são descrever e analisar o modelo inicial do parsing desse PLN (análise sintática da LI ao nível da IA); e realizar testes com esse processador e verificar seu nível de acuidade na transcrição; identificar quais aspectos físicos (qualidade de som, tipos de voz, ruídos, pronúncias, etecetera) podem afetar o processamento; prever, a partir dos resultados obtidos para os outros objetivos, como a dimensão discursiva nos processos de produção de sentidos poderá ocorrer entre estudante e ferramenta de conversa com a IA no ELLA, numa primeira versão do laboratório. A dissertação é dividida em quatro partes, a primeira, “Pelos Caminhos da Inteligência Artificial e do ELLA”, traz um apanhado evolutivo da IA e apresenta mais detalhadamente o laboratório virtual tanto sua parte estrutural, quanto seu funcionamento. A segunda parte “Pelos Caminhos Analíticos”, traz os principais conceitos e concepções de língua, linguagem, discurso e ideologia em um batimento entre a linguagem natural e a computacional, além de problematizar o PLN, por meio do Deepspeech, o qual faz o reconhecimento automático de fala, transformando-a em texto. A terceira parte, “Pelos Caminhos do Algoritmo” traz uma problematização acerca da programação decolonial, com regras que orientam a IA do ELLA e as formas pensadas pela equipe para realizar o feedback à(ao) estudante. A quarta e última parte “Pelos Caminhos Conclusivos” traz as considerações finais que respondem às perguntas de pesquisa, bem como as interpelações e os questionamentos feitos durante a escrita da dissertação. This dissertation aims to understand the discursive functioning of/in the artificial intelligence (AI) system of ELLA - English Language Learning Laboratory, a virtual laboratory for learning English as a foreign language (FL) that is being developed by the Federal University of Uberlandia and has the participation of researchers from the Federal Institute of Triangulo Mineiro. Teachers and researchers from several areas participate in the team, which made it possible for the themes and concerns related to Applied Linguistics, discourse, language itself, and the AI to be problematized and brought to the surface of the discussions inside the laboratory. It is from within these discussions that the theme of this dissertation emerges. ELLA is a freeware, whose AI system is designed to interact with the student giving feedback when she/he orally enunciates in English. In the process of creating the laboratory, theories in Applied Linguistics, Discourse Analysis, Programming, Artificial Intelligence, Decolonial Thinking, among others, are mobilized, and from these theories we start to question how the discursive dimension of and in programming works in the conditions of the laboratory. The research questions we aim to answer in the study are: how will the natural language processor (NLP) of the AI system behave when transcribing spoken English as FL, enunciated by subjects in initial learning processes? That is, will features (phonological, lexical, syntactic) of the Portuguese as mother tongue of these subjects be a hindrance in the NLP transcriptions? Does this processor rely on semantic and discourse relations for transcription? How will the discourse dimension work in the human-AI conversation system in ELLA? To answer these questions, we have set as a general goal to investigate how the discourse functioning in ELLA may occur. The specific goals are to describe and analyze the initial parsing model of this NLP (syntactic analysis of English at the AI level); and to perform tests with this processor and verify its level of transcription accuracy; identify which physical aspects (sound quality, voice types, noises, pronunciations, etcetera) may affect the processing; predict, from the results obtained for the other objectives, how the discursive dimension in the processes of sense production may occur between student and conversation tool with the AI in ELLA, in a first version of the laboratory. The dissertation is divided in four parts, the first one, "On the paths of Artificial Intelligence and ELLA", brings an evolutionary overview of AI and presents in more detail the virtual laboratory, both its structural part and its functioning one. The second part, "On the Analytical Paths", brings the main concepts and conceptions of language, discourse and ideology in a beat between natural and computational language, besides problematizing NLP, through Deepspeech, which performs automatic speech recognition, transforming it into text. The third part, "On the paths of the Algorithm", brings a problematization about decolonial programming, with rules that guide ELLA's AI and the ways thought by the team to provide feedback to the student. The fourth and last part, "On the Conclusive Paths", brings the final considerations that answer the research questions, as well as the interpellations and the questions made during the writing of the dissertation. Dissertação (Mestrado)

  • Publication . Thesis . 2021 . Embargo End Date: 11 Aug 2022
    Authors: 
    Scheidt, Luise;
    Publisher: Apollo - University of Cambridge Repository
    Country: United Kingdom

    This PhD examines the representation and perception of battle and war in late fifteenth and sixteenth century Venice, exploring the relationship between the historical situation and the artistic representation of the military culture in a variety of visual representations. Tracing different functions and uses of the depiction of battle themes throughout the various contexts and commissions, this dissertation examines how different individuals and agents utilised the representations of Venetian warfare and battles in different ways to benefit their own ambitions and agencies. The scope for this thesis is reflected by crucial changes in the Republic’s political history. The first part focuses on the last quarter of the quattrocento which manifests the beginning of Venice’s military decline, going hand in hand with the Ottomans’ conquest of the eastern Mediterranean as well as instability in Venice’s position within the states of Europe. It is especially in the commissions by individual Venetian patricians and communities that we find scenes of key battles against the Ottomans, such as the tomb monument for Doge Pietro Mocenigo and the Scuola degli Albanesi. The second part examines the aftermath of the wars against the League of Cambrai (1509-1516), representing the most vulnerable situation in Venice’s history. The commissions for the Palazzo Ducale, such as Titian’s Battle ofSpoleto, adhere to traditional narratives in order to maintain Venice’s position among the states of Europe, while the tomb for Doge Leonardo Loredan includes a direct allegory of these wars in unprecedented ways, commissioned decades after his death. The final part of this thesis focuses on the representations of battles in the new decorative cycle for the Great Council chamber in the Palazzo Ducale, commissioned after 1577. Through a detailed analysis of the surviving manuscript of the iconographical scheme for the council chamber, the study outlines how the overarching programme adheres to the military successes of the Republic’s past in the face of the decline after Lepanto. The PhD dissertation draws on primary evidence such as original artwork (paintings, sculptures, preparatory drawings and prints), personal wills and testaments, confraternities’ founding mariegole, contemporary editions of Venetian history, personal diaries and guidebooks, and surviving iconographical programmes to conduct a comparative art historical analysis that anchors the case-studies more firmly in the historical situation in Venice. German Academic Scholarship Foundation

  • Publication . Thesis . Other literature type . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kurzmeier Michael;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Country: Ireland

    The idea of influencing public opinion through digital media is ubiquitous, yet little is known about its origins. This thesis investigates the use of political communication through hacked websites. It is at the same time an exploratory description of the research tools and methods needed to find and retrieve such material. The dissertation frames political expression through hacking as interference with the strata of digital communication and positions it within a larger history of on- and offline activist practices. The methodological section describes the difficulties of finding and accessing defaced pages, which are almost exclusively held by community-based archives. Based on already available and added metadata, the dataset of defacements is surveyed and topics, periods of high activity and prominent defacer groups are identified. Modes of expression are tracked to give insight to possible defacer motivation. This survey then serves as the basis for the following analysis of two emblematic clusters of activity: The Kashmir conflict and the 9/11 attacks. In a close reading of selected defacements, communication strategies and general types of defacements are described, thereby showcasing the diversity of defacer standpoints and strategies which runs counter to the common uniform depiction of hackers. The notion of defacements as forced injection of material into a public sphere is discussed throughout these close readings and leads to the final analytical section discussing the relation between defacements and WikiLeaks. After reflecting on the themes that unite this dissertation, the conclusion reflects on the preservation and availability of source material on defaced pages. The author expresses the hope that both the research methodology as well as the applied analyses will promote the understanding of web defacements as a resource for inquests into online political expression. Funded by the Irish Research Council GOIPG/2019/2303

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Jerika M Jones;
    Publisher: University of Louisville