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6 Research products, page 1 of 1

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  • Master thesis
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  • Roskilde Universitetscenter's Digitale Arkiv

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Nielsen, Caspar Le Fevre;
    Country: Denmark

    The goal of this thesis is to analyze in what way the Little Ice Age, a colder climatic period between around 1300-1850, affected the development of the modern Danish state. This is though too large a scope for a single thesis and the wars between 1550-1750 have been chosen as an area of focus. These wars changed the geopolitical position of Denmark in the Nordic area, from a strong nation to a minor player. The worst outcome came, as Denmark lost all processions east of the Sound Strait to its rival Sweden in 1658, of which Bornholm was the only land area to return. These wars correlate to the Maunder Minimum, a period from 1645-1715, which was the coldest part of the Little Ice Age. In order to understand if there is a causation following this correlation, the main focus of the thesis will be the structural integrity of the Danish economy in pre-war and wartime periods. Two different economic spheres will be analyzed, the first being the Sound Toll income and the second the agricultural output. The Sound Toll do not seem to have a strong correlation to the cooling climate, and it does not seem that the colder winters decreased the income from the Toll. However, the agricultural output does seem to have a moderate correlation to the harsher winters of the Maunder Minimum, with a lower total output, thereby decreasing the ability of the State to increase taxation during wartime. It is also possible that the harsher winters increased the susceptibility of the society to epidemics. This master’s thesis argues that there is a possible connection between the changing climate and warfare, especially in the period before 1660. After the change in government, from an aristocratic monarchy to an absolutist monarchy in 1660, the following wars were more manageable for the State, possibly due to better harvests.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Droszt, Desiré;
    Country: Denmark

    This Master thesis explores how the English colonization has affected the history of the Tantric philosophy by applying a Foucaultian method of Genealogy and the theory of Orientalism presented by Edward Said on the field of Tantra. It bridges the gap between the Eurocentric theoretization of Foucault and the loss of the Foucaultian use of the concept of Discourse in Said’s Orientalism, by applying Robert Young’s discussion of how to reintroduce Foucault’s Discourse on Said’s Orientalism. This allows an opening up for an exploration of the discursive practices on Tantra since 1750 until today, which uses a more open concept of discourse than within the traditional Orientalism, due to the reintroduction of the Foucaultian concept of discourse. The history of the Tantric philosophy is scrutinized through a reading of the archive on Tantra within above mentioned timespan and the centers of power and knowledge have been located and thereafter has the literature been explored. It is found that the history of Tantra is interwoven with the history of colonization, though not limited to that only. It is therefore concluded that the history of Tantra is a history of interplay between various forces including the colonial, the Vedantic, the Tantric and the nationalist forces, which all have taken part in negotiating and renegotiating the content of Tantra. All of above mentioned have in common that they all take part in constructing a ‘dangerous’ Tantra and a ‘bad’ tantrika, but the content of these two empty categories changes during the discursive formations. Thus, Tantra is a floating signifier which is constantly negotiated and filled with different meanings according to the position of the authority constructing the content of Tantra.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Christophersen, Merlin;
    Country: Denmark

    Drawing on relevant theories, this thesis analyzes the role of ethnic (Eriksen 1991), racial (Hall 1996b), national (Anderson 2006; Bhabha 1990; Eriksen 1994) and religious (de Vries 2008) identity constructions in contemporary narratives on Zanzibar’s recent past. This analysis is based on traces of narratives found in qualitative interviews (Brinkmann & Kvale) with eight Zanzibari men interpreting their islands’ history. For centuries Zanzibar’s history has been marked by foreign domination, colonization and slave trade. When the country in 1963 achieved its independence, it had experienced a period of national awakening that fostered debates resulting in a political divide in which ethnic and racial identification became linked to political stance. One month after independence the newly inaugurated first democratically elected government was violently overthrown in what is known as the revolution of 1964. The revolutionaries accused the government of securing the prolonged rule of the Arabic sultan and thus in their opinion the oppression of an African majority, denying them their birthright to the islands. Shortly after the revolution the revolutionary government united Zanzibar with Tanganyika to form the United Republic of Tanzania (Glassman 2000; 2011; Loimeier 2006a; 2011; 2012; Sheriff 1994; 2001). This thesis investigates memories articulated in official and counter narratives about these events. It then analyzes how contested memories construct identities and argues how these cause divisions in contemporary Zanzibar.

  • Publication . Master thesis . 2009
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Nielsen, Christian;
    Country: Denmark

    This paper is an attempt to provide a new voice in the scholarly discussion about the Gospel of Judas. This paper is discussing whether Judas in the gospel is viewed as the hero, as thought by some, or if he is as evil as ever. To be able to take part in this discussion, GNosticism and the historical context in which the gospel was written are important factors we must take into consideration. I will argue, in this paper, that Judas is more evil than ever and in order to show this, I will analyze the evidence found in the text itself as well as make use of other Gnostic texts and the New Testament. To further discuss the features of the Gospel of Judas I will make use of the arguments presented by other scholars in the field.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Junker, Ele;
    Country: Denmark

    The French historian and philosopher Michel Foucault, inspired by Nietzsche, has questioned the unity of the notion of truth by meditating upon the relationship between language and reality. Foucault has formulated the methods of archaeology and genealogy in order to show how any claim of truth has its rooting in the interpretation of reality according to specific episteme. Contrary to Foucault’s reflections, the understanding of truth as being ‘out there’ and obtainable by appropriate, i.e. scientific methods, is the bearing element within the development discourse. This tendency is exemplified by the increase in the number of truth commissions worldwide. This thesis focuses on the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) and its Final Report. The TRC’s discourse and methods are analysed in terms of archaeology and genealogy by taking outset in the Report. The analyses are carried out with the aim of putting Foucault’s tools into practice and offering another narrative of the Report, which describes how the objects, main concepts etc. of the TRC have emerged, as well as how these regimes of truth have been put into practice by various techniques, thus constituting the regimes of practice. The overall narrative that appears is that the TRC’s concepts and methods arose as the result of a complicated system of relations and rules that render these concepts arbitrary. Further, the effects of its practices constitute the TRC as a technique of power that aims at disciplining its subjects according to the new moral code, based on human rights, so that the new power relations in South Africa (SA) could be legitimised and maintained. The overall aim of the analyses is to put Foucault’s approaches into perspective and illustrate their strengths and weaknesses. To support this pursuit, various authors are brought in who discuss archaeology and genealogy from different angles. The topics discussed in relation to archaeology are: Problems related to Foucault’s definition of discourse, the relationship between discourse and the social level, the dispersion of the subject, and archaeology as an elitist approach. The issues discussed in relation to genealogy can be summed up as: Foucault’s normativity, the subject, power as strategy, and resistance. The final discussion, i.e. problematisation of Foucault’s regimes of truth and regimes of practices, takes outset in these topics combined with the author’s personal experiences regarding the use of Foucault’s methods and is combined with personal reflections on the consequences of the Foucaultian point of view.

  • Publication . Master thesis . 2006
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Gilani, Syed Irfan Munawar;
    Country: Denmark

    Zakat is the third pillar in the five basic tenets of Islam. It is where worship converges with socio-economic affairs of society in the Islamic paradigm. An Islamic obligation, the Prophet Muhammad implemented Zakat in a broad framework, which included the fiscal support of the poor and needy, enabling them to enhance their livelihoods and thereby eradicating poverty. As modern Muslim states, such as Pakistan, are increasingly relating issues of their heritage and faith to questions of self-identification and development, this study explores the concept of Zakat and discerns the role of the state in the early Islamic period in the pursuit of grasping the essence of the context in which the institution was originally established, to thereby conduct an appraisal of the system of Zakat in Pakistan. The identity of Pakistan comes into sharp focus, as the normativeness of Zakat requires an understanding as to the relevance of the Islamic faith to public policies of country.