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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Alexandra L. Morton-Hayward; Tim Thompson; Jane Thomas-Oates; Stephen Buckley; Axel Petzold; Abigail Ramsøe; Sonia O'Connor; Matthew J. Collins;
    Publisher: Informa UK Limited
    Country: United Kingdom

    Brain tissue is ubiquitous in the archaeological record. Multiple, independent studies report the finding of black, resinous or shiny brain tissue, and Petrone et al. [2020 “Heat-induced Brain Vitrification from the Vesuvius Eruption in C.E. 79.” N Engl J Med. 382: 383–384; doi:10.1056/NEJMc1909867] raise the intriguing prospect of a role for vitrification in the preservation of ancient biomolecules. However, Petrone et al. (2020) have not made their raw data available, and no detailed laboratory or analytical methodology is offered. Issues of contamination and misinterpretation hampered a decade of research in biomolecular archaeology, such that addressing these sources of bias and facilitating validation of specious findings has become both routine and of paramount importance in the discipline. We argue that the evidence they present does not support their conclusion of heat-induced vitrification of human brain tissue, and that future studies should share palaeoproteomic data in an open access repository to facilitate comparative analysis of the recovery of ancient proteins and patterns of their degradation.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Tsirintoulaki, Kalliroi; Matzig, David N.; Riede, Felix;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | CLIOARCH (817564)

    This is the initial release of the research compendium for the article by Tsirintoulaki, K., Matzig, D.N., Riede, F. (2022) "A 2D geometric morphometric assessment of chrono-cultural trends in osseous barbed points of the European Final Palaeolithic and Early Mesolithic" submitted to Open Archaeology. It contains all data and code, and will generate the results as found in the publication. The files hosted at https://github.com/yesdavid/Osseous_Barbed_Points_2D_GMM are the development versions and may have changed since the publication.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Antoine Grisart; Mathieu Casado; Vasileios Gkinis; Bo Vinther; Philippe Naveau; Mathieu Vrac; Thomas Laepple; Bénédicte Minster; Frederic Prié; Barbara Stenni; +9 more
    Countries: France, Denmark

    The EPICA Dome C (EDC) ice core provides the longest continuous climatic record, covering the last 800 000 years (800 kyr). A unique opportunity to investigate decadal to millennial variability during past glacial and interglacial periods is provided by the high-resolution water isotopic record (δ18O and δD) available for the EDC ice core. We present here a continuous compilation of the EDC water isotopic record at a sample resolution of 11 cm, which consists of 27 000 δ18O measurements and 7920 δD measurements (covering, respectively, 94 % and 27 % of the whole EDC record), including published and new measurements (2900 for both δ18O and δD) for the last 800 kyr. Here, we demonstrate that repeated water isotope measurements of the same EDC samples from different depth intervals obtained using different analytical methods are comparable within analytical uncertainty. We thus combine all available EDC water isotope measurements to generate a high-resolution (11 cm) dataset for the past 800 kyr. A frequency decomposition of the most complete δ18O record and a simple assessment of the possible influence of diffusion on the measured profile shows that the variability at the multi-decadal to multi-centennial timescale is higher during glacial than during interglacial periods and higher during early interglacial isotopic maxima than during the Holocene. This analysis shows as well that during interglacial periods characterized by a temperature optimum at the beginning, the multi-centennial variability is strongest over this temperature optimum.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Helle Astrid Kjær; Patrick Zens; Samuel Black; Kasper Holst Lund; Anders Svensson; Paul Vallelonga;
    Publisher: Copernicus GmbH
    Country: Denmark
    Project: EC | ICE2ICE (610055)

    Abstract. Greenland ice cores provide information about past climate. Few impurity records covering the past 2 decades exist from Greenland. Here we present results from six firn cores obtained during a 426 km long northern Greenland traverse made in 2015 between the NEEM and the EGRIP deep-drilling stations situated on the western side and eastern side of the Greenland ice sheet, respectively. The cores (9 to 14 m long) are analyzed for chemical impurities and cover time spans of 18 to 53 years (±3 years) depending on local snow accumulation that decreases from west to east. The high temporal resolution allows for annual layers and seasons to be resolved. Insoluble dust, ammonium, and calcium concentrations in the six firn cores overlap, and the seasonal cycles are also similar in timing and magnitude across sites, while peroxide (H2O2) and conductivity both have spatial variations, H2O2 driven by the accumulation pattern, and conductivity likely influenced by sea salt. Overall, we determine a rather constant dust flux over the period, but in the data from recent years (1998–2015) we identify an increase in large dust particles that we ascribe to an activation of local Greenland sources. We observe an expected increase in acidity and conductivity in the mid-1970s as a result of anthropogenic emissions, followed by a decrease due to mitigation. Several volcanic horizons identified in the conductivity and acidity records can be associated with eruptions in Iceland and in the Barents Sea region. From a composite ammonium record we obtain a robust forest fire proxy associated primarily with Canadian forest fires (R=0.49).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Gerrit D. van den Bergh; Brent V. Alloway; Michael Storey; Ruly Setiawan; Dida Yurnaldi; Iwan Kurniawan; Mark W. Moore; null Jatmiko; Adam Brumm; Stephanie Flude; +17 more
    Country: Denmark

    Flores represents a unique insular environment with an extensive record of Pleistocene fossil remains and stone artefacts. In the So'a Basin of central Flores these include endemic Stegodon, Komodo dragons, giant tortoises, rats, birds and hominins, and lithic artefacts that can be traced back to at least one million years ago (1 Ma). This comprehensive review presents important new data regarding the dating and faunal sequence of the So'a Basin, including the site of Mata Menge where Homo floresiensis-like fossils dating to approximately 0.7 Ma were discovered in 2014. By chemical fingerprinting key silicic tephra originating from local and distal eruptive sources we have now established basin-wide tephrostratigraphic correlations, and, together with new numerical ages, present an update of the chronostratigraphy of the So'a Basin, with major implications for the faunal sequence. These results show that a giant tortoise and the diminutive proboscidean Stegodon sondaari last occurred at the site of Tangi Talo ∼1.3 Ma, and not 0.9 Ma as previously thought. We also present new data suggesting that the disappearance of giant tortoise and S. sondaari from the sedimentary record occurred before, and/or was coincident with, the earliest hominin arrival, as evidenced by the first records of lithic artefacts occurring directly below the 1 Ma Wolo Sege Tephra. Artefacts become common in the younger layers, associated with a distinct fauna characterized by the medium-sized Stegodon florensis and giant rat Hooijeromys nusatenggara. Furthermore, we describe a newly discovered terrace fill, which extends the faunal record of Stegodon in the So'a Basin to the Late Pleistocene. Our evidence also suggests that the paleoenvironment of the So'a Basin became drier around the time of the observed faunal transition and arrival of hominins on the island, which could be related to an astronomically-forced climate response at the onset of the Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT; ∼1.25 Ma) leading to increased aridity and monsoonal intensity.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Chen Li; Xiaochun Zhang; Dimitrios Chrysostomou; Hongji Yang;
    Publisher: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Country: Denmark

    Despite the fact that task-oriented conversation systems have received much attention from the dialogue research community, only a handful of them have been studied in a real-world manufacturing context using industrial robots. One stumbling block is the lack of a domain-specific discourse corpus for training these systems. Another difficulty is that earlier attempts to integrate natural language interfaces (such as chatbots) into the industrial sector have primarily focused on task completion rates. When designing a dialogue system for social robots, the user experience is prioritized above industrial robots. To overcome these challenges, we provide the Industrial Robots Domain Wizard-of-Oz dataset (IRWoZ), a fully-labeled discourse dataset covering four robotics domains. It delivers simulated discussions between shop floor workers and industrial robots, with over 401 dialogues, to promote language-assisted Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) in industrial settings. Small talk concepts and human-to-human conversation strategies are provided to support human-like answer generation and give a more natural and adaptable dialogue environment to increase user experience and engagement. Finally, we propose and evaluate an end-to-end Task-oriented Dialogue for Industrial Robots (ToD4IR) using two types of pre-trained backbone models: GPT-2 and GPT-Neo, on the IRWoZ dataset. We performed a series of trials to validate ToD4IR's performance in a real manufacturing context. Our experiments demonstrate that ToD4IR outperforms three downstream task-oriented dialogue tasks, i.e., dialogue state tracking, dialogue act generation, and response generation, on the IRWoZ dataset. Our source code of ToD4IR and the IRWoZ dataset is accessible at https://github.com/lcroy/ToD4IR for reproducible research.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . Preprint . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Johannes Lohmann; Anders Svensson;
    Country: Denmark

    Abstract. While a significant influence of volcanic activity on Holocene climate is well-established, an equally prominent role of major eruptions in the climate variability and regime shifts during the Quaternary glacial cycles has been suggested. Previous statistical assessments of this were challenged by inaccurate synchronization of large volcanic eruptions to changes in past climate. Here, this is alleviated by combining a new record of bipolar volcanism from Greenland and Antarctic ice cores with records of abrupt climate change derived from the same ice cores. We show that bipolar volcanic eruptions occurred significantly more frequently than expected by chance just before the onset of Dansgaard–Oeschger events, which are the most prominent large-scale abrupt climate changes in the last glacial period. Out of 20 abrupt warming events in the 12–60 ka period, 5 (7) occur within 20 (50) years after a bipolar eruption. We hypothesize that this may be a result of the direct influence of volcanic cooling on the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, which is widely regarded as the main climate subsystem involved in Dansgaard–Oeschger cycles. Transitions from a weak to a strong circulation mode may be triggered by cooling in the North Atlantic given that the circulation is close to a stability threshold. We illustrate this suggestion by simulations with an ocean-only general circulation model forced by short-term volcanic cooling. The analysis presented suggests that large eruptions may act as short-term triggers for large-scale abrupt climate change and may explain some of the variability of Dansgaard–Oeschger cycles. While we argue that the bipolar catalogue used here covers a sufficiently large portion of the eruptions with the strongest global climate impact, volcanic events restricted to either the Northern or Southern Hemisphere may likewise contribute to abrupt climate change.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Vanessa C. Bieker; Paul Battlay; Bent Petersen; Xin Sun; Jonathan Wilson; Jaelle C. Brealey; François Bretagnolle; Kristin Nurkowski; Chris Lee; Fátima Sánchez Barreiro; +18 more
    Countries: Finland, Denmark

    Invasive species are a key driver of the global biodiversity crisis, but the drivers of invasiveness, including the role of pathogens, remain debated. We investigated the genomic basis of invasiveness in Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed), introduced to Europe in the late 19th century, by resequencing 655 ragweed genomes, including 308 herbarium specimens collected up to 190 years ago. In invasive European populations, we found selection signatures in defense genes and lower prevalence of disease-inducing plant pathogens. Together with temporal changes in population structure associated with introgression from closely related Ambrosia species, escape from specific microbial enemies likely favored the plant’s remarkable success as an invasive species.

  • Publication . Article . 2022
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Vicki Cummings; Rune Iversen; Daniela Hofmann; Mathias Bjørnevad-Ahlqvist;
    Publisher: Det Kgl. Bibliotek/Royal Danish Library
    Country: Denmark

    This paper explores the current narratives of migration for the start and spread of the Neolithic with a particular focus on the role that the new ancient DNA data have provided. While the genetic data are important and instructive, here it is argued that archaeologists should also consider other strands of evidence. More nuanced appreciations of migration as a long-term process can be created by exploring modern mobility studies alongside considerations of continued mobility throughout the Neolithic in Europe. We can also re-interpret the material evidence itself in the light of these approaches to help trace multiple possible links and migrations from multiple different origin points. This involves the investigation of complex, but connected, practices, such as monument construction and deposition across wider areas of northern Europe than are currently normally investigated. Such an approach will enable us to address long-term processes of movement, migration and interaction and investigate how new, shared social experiences emerged in a setting in which mobility and migration may have been the norm.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Staffan von Arbin; Tobias Skowronek; Aoife Daly; Torbjörn Brorsson; Sven Isaksson; Torben Seir;
    Publisher: Informa UK Limited
    Project: EC | TIMBER (677152)