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4 Research products

  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage
  • 2019-2023
  • Open Access
  • Research data
  • Research software
  • Other research products
  • DK
  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage
  • Knowmad Institut

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Rasmussen, Sune Olander; Svensson, Anders M; Vinther, Bo Møllesøe;

    Greenland Ice-Core Chronology 2005 (GICC05) annual layer depths for various Greenland ice cores. This is the high-resolution version (full, annual resolution) data file. Previously, 10- and 20-year resolution data files containing the time scale and resampled d18O data have been released for different time intervals together with the papers mentioned below. Ages are reported as years before A.D. 2000 / 2000 CE, abbreviated b2k.The file contains the location of the annual markers in the GICC05 time scale for each core's depth sections where data was available and sufficiently resolved to allow annual dating. Details are given in the papers listed below. The markers are placed in the winter and spring depending on the availability of data (e.g. using the winter d18O minimum, winter Sodium concentration maximum, spring dust/Calcium concentration maximum, or visual stratigraphy grey-scale peaks in the deepest parts). Across data gaps, markers are placed by interpolation or using other impurity species with different seasonality (e.g. using summer Ammonium or Nitrate peaks). Therefore, the criteria for where the annual markers are places vary between sections, and care should be taken when interpreting data on annual scale. The dating of the 0-7.9 ka b2k part is described in the paper Vinther et al., 2006The dating of the 7.9-14.7 ka b2k part is described in the paper Rasmussen et al., 2006The dating of the 14.7-41.8 ka b2k part is described in the paper Andersen et al., 2006The dating of the 41.8-60.0 ka b2k part is described in the paper Svensson et al., 2008When counting layers, uncertainty is introduced when an annual layer is backed up by evidence only in some of the data series, or when a certain well-resolved feature is suspected to contain more than one annual layer. The cases of ambiguity in the annual layer identification process have been marked using so-called uncertain layer markings. These uncertain layer markings were included in the time scale as ½ ± ½ years, with the ± ½ years forming the basis for quantifying the so-called maximum counting error. The concept of maximum counting error is further discussed in Rasmussen et al. (2006). In a standard deviation context, the maximum counting error can be regarded as 2 sigma as discussed in Andersen et al. (2006).In the Holocene, GS-1, and GI-2, the published time scale was derived from annual layer markings by manually determining which half of the uncertain layer markings to count as years, and which to skip. The maximum counting error was estimated from the number of uncertain layer markings as a constant relative uncertainty for each period with similar data availability and characteristics: 21-3,845 a b2k (0.25%), 3,846-6,905 a b2k (0.5%), 6,906-10,276 a b2k (2%), 10,277-11,703 a b2k (0.67%), 11,703-12,896 a b2k (3,3%), 12,896-14,075 a b2k (2.6%), 14,075-14,692 a b2k (2.7%) (see table 2 in Vinther et al, 2006, and table 3 in Rasmussen et al., 2006). From GS-2 and below (Andersen et al., 2006; Svensson et al., 2008) every 2nd uncertain layer was counted as a year and the maximum counting uncertainty increased by one year (giving rise to a variable relative counting error ranging from 4% in the warm interstadial periods to 7% in the cold stadials, and averaging 5.3%). In data set "Greenland NGRIP2 Ice-Core annual layer markings"(https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.943194), the depths of the annual layer markings (including the uncertain ones) are provided with indication of which of these were counted as annual layers. This data set is only available below 10.2 ka. Above this, the locations of the discarded half of the uncertain layer markings have only been recorded on paper.The NGRIP1 core reaches down to a depth of 1372 m. The NGRIP2 core (drilled 20 meters away from the NGRIP1 core) reaches from surface to bedrock, but high-resolution measurements have only been carried out downwards from 1346 m. In the 26 m overlap zone, the cores are offset by 0.43 m on average, probably due to uncertainties in the logging procedure (see Schøtt Hvidberg et al., Ann. Glac. 35, 2002). Thus, the same features appear at larger depths in the NGRIP1 than in the NGRIP2 core. We recommend that NGRIP1 depths are used until 9820 b2k, and NGRIP2 depths are used below this.Note that the GICC05 time scale has later been revised. The first section of the new time scale, named GICC21, is described in the paper "A multi-ice-core, annual-layer-counted Greenland ice-core chronology for the last 3800 years: GICC21", Climate of the Past volume 18, p. 1125-1150, 2022, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-18-1125-2022. Updated GICC21 annual-layer positions are released in the supplement to the paper. Annual markers forming the GICC05 time scale for NGRIP1, NGRIP2, GRIP, and DYE-3 where data was available and sufficiently resolved to allow annual dating. The markers are placed in the winter and spring depending on the availability of data (e.g. using the winter d18O minimum, winter Sodium concentration maximum, spring dust/Calcium concentration maximum, or visual stratigraphy grey-scale peaks in the deepest parts). Across data gaps, markers are placed by interpolation or using other impurity species with different seasonality (e.g. using summer Ammonium or Nitrate peaks). Therefore, the criteria for where the annual markers are places vary between sections, and care should be taken when interpreting data on annual scale. Ages are reported as years before A.D. 2000 / 2000 CE, abbreviated b2k. Depths (in meter) are true depths below the undisturbed surface the year when drilling started.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PANGAEAarrow_drop_down
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    PANGAEA
    Dataset . 2022
    Data sources: B2FIND
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PANGAEAarrow_drop_down
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      PANGAEA
      Dataset . 2022
      Data sources: B2FIND
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Rasmussen, Sune Olander; Svensson, Anders M; Vinther, Bo Møllesøe;

    Greenland Ice-Core Chronology 2005 (GICC05) annual layer depths for various Greenland ice cores. This is the high-resolution version (full, annual resolution) data file. Previously, 10- and 20-year resolution data files containing the time scale and resampled d18O data have been released for different time intervals together with the papers mentioned below. Ages are reported as years before A.D. 2000 / 2000 CE, abbreviated b2k.The file contains the location of the annual markers in the GICC05 time scale for each core's depth sections where data was available and sufficiently resolved to allow annual dating. Details are given in the papers listed below. The markers are placed in the winter and spring depending on the availability of data (e.g. using the winter d18O minimum, winter Sodium concentration maximum, spring dust/Calcium concentration maximum, or visual stratigraphy grey-scale peaks in the deepest parts). Across data gaps, markers are placed by interpolation or using other impurity species with different seasonality (e.g. using summer Ammonium or Nitrate peaks). Therefore, the criteria for where the annual markers are places vary between sections, and care should be taken when interpreting data on annual scale. The dating of the 0-7.9 ka b2k part is described in the paper Vinther et al., 2006The dating of the 7.9-14.7 ka b2k part is described in the paper Rasmussen et al., 2006The dating of the 14.7-41.8 ka b2k part is described in the paper Andersen et al., 2006The dating of the 41.8-60.0 ka b2k part is described in the paper Svensson et al., 2008When counting layers, uncertainty is introduced when an annual layer is backed up by evidence only in some of the data series, or when a certain well-resolved feature is suspected to contain more than one annual layer. The cases of ambiguity in the annual layer identification process have been marked using so-called uncertain layer markings. These uncertain layer markings were included in the time scale as ½ ± ½ years, with the ± ½ years forming the basis for quantifying the so-called maximum counting error. The concept of maximum counting error is further discussed in Rasmussen et al. (2006). In a standard deviation context, the maximum counting error can be regarded as 2 sigma as discussed in Andersen et al. (2006).In the Holocene, GS-1, and GI-2, the published time scale was derived from annual layer markings by manually determining which half of the uncertain layer markings to count as years, and which to skip. The maximum counting error was estimated from the number of uncertain layer markings as a constant relative uncertainty for each period with similar data availability and characteristics: 21-3,845 a b2k (0.25%), 3,846-6,905 a b2k (0.5%), 6,906-10,276 a b2k (2%), 10,277-11,703 a b2k (0.67%), 11,703-12,896 a b2k (3,3%), 12,896-14,075 a b2k (2.6%), 14,075-14,692 a b2k (2.7%) (see table 2 in Vinther et al, 2006, and table 3 in Rasmussen et al., 2006). From GS-2 and below (Andersen et al., 2006; Svensson et al., 2008) every 2nd uncertain layer was counted as a year and the maximum counting uncertainty increased by one year (giving rise to a variable relative counting error ranging from 4% in the warm interstadial periods to 7% in the cold stadials, and averaging 5.3%). In data set "Greenland NGRIP2 Ice-Core annual layer markings"(https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.943194), the depths of the annual layer markings (including the uncertain ones) are provided with indication of which of these were counted as annual layers. This data set is only available below 10.2 ka. Above this, the locations of the discarded half of the uncertain layer markings have only been recorded on paper.The NGRIP1 core reaches down to a depth of 1372 m. The NGRIP2 core (drilled 20 meters away from the NGRIP1 core) reaches from surface to bedrock, but high-resolution measurements have only been carried out downwards from 1346 m. In the 26 m overlap zone, the cores are offset by 0.43 m on average, probably due to uncertainties in the logging procedure (see Schøtt Hvidberg et al., Ann. Glac. 35, 2002). Thus, the same features appear at larger depths in the NGRIP1 than in the NGRIP2 core. We recommend that NGRIP1 depths are used until 9820 b2k, and NGRIP2 depths are used below this.Note that the GICC05 time scale has later been revised. The first section of the new time scale, named GICC21, is described in the paper "A multi-ice-core, annual-layer-counted Greenland ice-core chronology for the last 3800 years: GICC21", Climate of the Past volume 18, p. 1125-1150, 2022, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-18-1125-2022. Updated GICC21 annual-layer positions are released in the supplement to the paper. Annual markers forming the GICC05 time scale for NGRIP1, NGRIP2, GRIP, and DYE-3 where data was available and sufficiently resolved to allow annual dating. The markers are placed in the winter and spring depending on the availability of data (e.g. using the winter d18O minimum, winter Sodium concentration maximum, spring dust/Calcium concentration maximum, or visual stratigraphy grey-scale peaks in the deepest parts). Across data gaps, markers are placed by interpolation or using other impurity species with different seasonality (e.g. using summer Ammonium or Nitrate peaks). Therefore, the criteria for where the annual markers are places vary between sections, and care should be taken when interpreting data on annual scale. Ages are reported as years before A.D. 2000 / 2000 CE, abbreviated b2k. Depths (in meter) are true depths below the undisturbed surface the year when drilling started.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PANGAEA - Data Publi...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    PANGAEA
    Dataset . 2022
    Data sources: B2FIND
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PANGAEA - Data Publi...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      PANGAEA
      Dataset . 2022
      Data sources: B2FIND
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Jensen, Nickolaj Feldt; Rode, Carsten; Møller, Eva B.;

    Supplementary data for: N.F. Jensen, C. Rode, E.B. Møller, 2021, "Hygrothermal assessment of internally insulated historic solid masonry walls with focus on the thermal bridge due to internal partition walls"This study investigated the hygrothermal performance of five thermal insulation systems for internal retrofitting purposes. Focus was on the hygrothermal performance near partition brick walls compared to the middle of the wall. The setup consisted of two 40-feet (12.2 m) insulated reefer containers with controlled indoor climate, reconfigured with several holes (1x2 m each) containing solid masonry walls with embedded wooden elements on the interior side, an internal brick partition wall and different internal insulation systems, with and without exterior hydrophobisation. Relative humidity and temperature were measured over five years in the masonry/insulation interface and near the interior surface, in the centre of the test field and near the internal partition wall. In addition, calibrated numerical simulations were performed for further investigation of the thermal bridge effect. The datasets comprises:1) Measurements from the experimental setup (hourly and 96-hour average values)2) Visual representations of the measurements from the experimental setup 3) VTT mould growth modelling (calculation files and results)4) Calibrated Delphin simulation models (including Output JPG files)

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ DTU Dataarrow_drop_down
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    DTU Data
    Dataset . 2021
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: DTU Data
    https://doi.org/10.11583/dtu.1...
    Dataset . 2021
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
    https://doi.org/10.11583/dtu.1...
    Dataset . 2021
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ DTU Dataarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      DTU Data
      Dataset . 2021
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: DTU Data
      https://doi.org/10.11583/dtu.1...
      Dataset . 2021
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
      https://doi.org/10.11583/dtu.1...
      Dataset . 2021
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
      addClaim

      This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Bin Abdul Rahman, Abdul Halim; Sørensen Alves Monteiro, Miguel;

    This project was set out to explore the role of the Turing Test in the development of Artificial Intelligence (AI), with emphasis on the historical perspective. This report contains an introductory presentation of the Turing Test and Artificial Intelligence. Furthermore, it presents two methods for analysis. The first method is a quantitative search in extracting the number of results from Google Scholars for search range between 1950 and 2019. The searched terms are ‘Turing Test’ and ‘Artificial Intelligence’. The second method is the one used for the analysis of two case studies, ELIZA and Google Duplex. In exploring the historical development, ELIZA is an early research topic from 1966 and Google Duplex is a contemporary project from 2018. This report concludes that the Turing Test appears to have played a role in the historical development of AI. Results from the quantitative search show that there is an exponential growth, followed by a short stabilisation, before it begins to decay towards the last decade. Both case studies failed when subjected to a strict Turing Test. Though when subjected to the Total Turing Test, Google Duplex seems to surpass it. Finally, this report also concludes that the Turing Test may no longer be relevant, as mediums for AI have evolved beyond text-based and most developments are no longer concerned with tricking humans.

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Roskilde Universitet...arrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Rasmussen, Sune Olander; Svensson, Anders M; Vinther, Bo Møllesøe;

    Greenland Ice-Core Chronology 2005 (GICC05) annual layer depths for various Greenland ice cores. This is the high-resolution version (full, annual resolution) data file. Previously, 10- and 20-year resolution data files containing the time scale and resampled d18O data have been released for different time intervals together with the papers mentioned below. Ages are reported as years before A.D. 2000 / 2000 CE, abbreviated b2k.The file contains the location of the annual markers in the GICC05 time scale for each core's depth sections where data was available and sufficiently resolved to allow annual dating. Details are given in the papers listed below. The markers are placed in the winter and spring depending on the availability of data (e.g. using the winter d18O minimum, winter Sodium concentration maximum, spring dust/Calcium concentration maximum, or visual stratigraphy grey-scale peaks in the deepest parts). Across data gaps, markers are placed by interpolation or using other impurity species with different seasonality (e.g. using summer Ammonium or Nitrate peaks). Therefore, the criteria for where the annual markers are places vary between sections, and care should be taken when interpreting data on annual scale. The dating of the 0-7.9 ka b2k part is described in the paper Vinther et al., 2006The dating of the 7.9-14.7 ka b2k part is described in the paper Rasmussen et al., 2006The dating of the 14.7-41.8 ka b2k part is described in the paper Andersen et al., 2006The dating of the 41.8-60.0 ka b2k part is described in the paper Svensson et al., 2008When counting layers, uncertainty is introduced when an annual layer is backed up by evidence only in some of the data series, or when a certain well-resolved feature is suspected to contain more than one annual layer. The cases of ambiguity in the annual layer identification process have been marked using so-called uncertain layer markings. These uncertain layer markings were included in the time scale as ½ ± ½ years, with the ± ½ years forming the basis for quantifying the so-called maximum counting error. The concept of maximum counting error is further discussed in Rasmussen et al. (2006). In a standard deviation context, the maximum counting error can be regarded as 2 sigma as discussed in Andersen et al. (2006).In the Holocene, GS-1, and GI-2, the published time scale was derived from annual layer markings by manually determining which half of the uncertain layer markings to count as years, and which to skip. The maximum counting error was estimated from the number of uncertain layer markings as a constant relative uncertainty for each period with similar data availability and characteristics: 21-3,845 a b2k (0.25%), 3,846-6,905 a b2k (0.5%), 6,906-10,276 a b2k (2%), 10,277-11,703 a b2k (0.67%), 11,703-12,896 a b2k (3,3%), 12,896-14,075 a b2k (2.6%), 14,075-14,692 a b2k (2.7%) (see table 2 in Vinther et al, 2006, and table 3 in Rasmussen et al., 2006). From GS-2 and below (Andersen et al., 2006; Svensson et al., 2008) every 2nd uncertain layer was counted as a year and the maximum counting uncertainty increased by one year (giving rise to a variable relative counting error ranging from 4% in the warm interstadial periods to 7% in the cold stadials, and averaging 5.3%). In data set "Greenland NGRIP2 Ice-Core annual layer markings"(https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.943194), the depths of the annual layer markings (including the uncertain ones) are provided with indication of which of these were counted as annual layers. This data set is only available below 10.2 ka. Above this, the locations of the discarded half of the uncertain layer markings have only been recorded on paper.The NGRIP1 core reaches down to a depth of 1372 m. The NGRIP2 core (drilled 20 meters away from the NGRIP1 core) reaches from surface to bedrock, but high-resolution measurements have only been carried out downwards from 1346 m. In the 26 m overlap zone, the cores are offset by 0.43 m on average, probably due to uncertainties in the logging procedure (see Schøtt Hvidberg et al., Ann. Glac. 35, 2002). Thus, the same features appear at larger depths in the NGRIP1 than in the NGRIP2 core. We recommend that NGRIP1 depths are used until 9820 b2k, and NGRIP2 depths are used below this.Note that the GICC05 time scale has later been revised. The first section of the new time scale, named GICC21, is described in the paper "A multi-ice-core, annual-layer-counted Greenland ice-core chronology for the last 3800 years: GICC21", Climate of the Past volume 18, p. 1125-1150, 2022, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-18-1125-2022. Updated GICC21 annual-layer positions are released in the supplement to the paper. Annual markers forming the GICC05 time scale for NGRIP1, NGRIP2, GRIP, and DYE-3 where data was available and sufficiently resolved to allow annual dating. The markers are placed in the winter and spring depending on the availability of data (e.g. using the winter d18O minimum, winter Sodium concentration maximum, spring dust/Calcium concentration maximum, or visual stratigraphy grey-scale peaks in the deepest parts). Across data gaps, markers are placed by interpolation or using other impurity species with different seasonality (e.g. using summer Ammonium or Nitrate peaks). Therefore, the criteria for where the annual markers are places vary between sections, and care should be taken when interpreting data on annual scale. Ages are reported as years before A.D. 2000 / 2000 CE, abbreviated b2k. Depths (in meter) are true depths below the undisturbed surface the year when drilling started.

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    PANGAEA
    Dataset . 2022
    Data sources: B2FIND
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      PANGAEA
      Dataset . 2022
      Data sources: B2FIND
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    Authors: Rasmussen, Sune Olander; Svensson, Anders M; Vinther, Bo Møllesøe;

    Greenland Ice-Core Chronology 2005 (GICC05) annual layer depths for various Greenland ice cores. This is the high-resolution version (full, annual resolution) data file. Previously, 10- and 20-year resolution data files containing the time scale and resampled d18O data have been released for different time intervals together with the papers mentioned below. Ages are reported as years before A.D. 2000 / 2000 CE, abbreviated b2k.The file contains the location of the annual markers in the GICC05 time scale for each core's depth sections where data was available and sufficiently resolved to allow annual dating. Details are given in the papers listed below. The markers are placed in the winter and spring depending on the availability of data (e.g. using the winter d18O minimum, winter Sodium concentration maximum, spring dust/Calcium concentration maximum, or visual stratigraphy grey-scale peaks in the deepest parts). Across data gaps, markers are placed by interpolation or using other impurity species with different seasonality (e.g. using summer Ammonium or Nitrate peaks). Therefore, the criteria for where the annual markers are places vary between sections, and care should be taken when interpreting data on annual scale. The dating of the 0-7.9 ka b2k part is described in the paper Vinther et al., 2006The dating of the 7.9-14.7 ka b2k part is described in the paper Rasmussen et al., 2006The dating of the 14.7-41.8 ka b2k part is described in the paper Andersen et al., 2006The dating of the 41.8-60.0 ka b2k part is described in the paper Svensson et al., 2008When counting layers, uncertainty is introduced when an annual layer is backed up by evidence only in some of the data series, or when a certain well-resolved feature is suspected to contain more than one annual layer. The cases of ambiguity in the annual layer identification process have been marked using so-called uncertain layer markings. These uncertain layer markings were included in the time scale as ½ ± ½ years, with the ± ½ years forming the basis for quantifying the so-called maximum counting error. The concept of maximum counting error is further discussed in Rasmussen et al. (2006). In a standard deviation context, the maximum counting error can be regarded as 2 sigma as discussed in Andersen et al. (2006).In the Holocene, GS-1, and GI-2, the published time scale was derived from annual layer markings by manually determining which half of the uncertain layer markings to count as years, and which to skip. The maximum counting error was estimated from the number of uncertain layer markings as a constant relative uncertainty for each period with similar data availability and characteristics: 21-3,845 a b2k (0.25%), 3,846-6,905 a b2k (0.5%), 6,906-10,276 a b2k (2%), 10,277-11,703 a b2k (0.67%), 11,703-12,896 a b2k (3,3%), 12,896-14,075 a b2k (2.6%), 14,075-14,692 a b2k (2.7%) (see table 2 in Vinther et al, 2006, and table 3 in Rasmussen et al., 2006). From GS-2 and below (Andersen et al., 2006; Svensson et al., 2008) every 2nd uncertain layer was counted as a year and the maximum counting uncertainty increased by one year (giving rise to a variable relative counting error ranging from 4% in the warm interstadial periods to 7% in the cold stadials, and averaging 5.3%). In data set "Greenland NGRIP2 Ice-Core annual layer markings"(https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.943194), the depths of the annual layer markings (including the uncertain ones) are provided with indication of which of these were counted as annual layers. This data set is only available below 10.2 ka. Above this, the locations of the discarded half of the uncertain layer markings have only been recorded on paper.The NGRIP1 core reaches down to a depth of 1372 m. The NGRIP2 core (drilled 20 meters away from the NGRIP1 core) reaches from surface to bedrock, but high-resolution measurements have only been carried out downwards from 1346 m. In the 26 m overlap zone, the cores are offset by 0.43 m on average, probably due to uncertainties in the logging procedure (see Schøtt Hvidberg et al., Ann. Glac. 35, 2002). Thus, the same features appear at larger depths in the NGRIP1 than in the NGRIP2 core. We recommend that NGRIP1 depths are used until 9820 b2k, and NGRIP2 depths are used below this.Note that the GICC05 time scale has later been revised. The first section of the new time scale, named GICC21, is described in the paper "A multi-ice-core, annual-layer-counted Greenland ice-core chronology for the last 3800 years: GICC21", Climate of the Past volume 18, p. 1125-1150, 2022, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-18-1125-2022. Updated GICC21 annual-layer positions are released in the supplement to the paper. Annual markers forming the GICC05 time scale for NGRIP1, NGRIP2, GRIP, and DYE-3 where data was available and sufficiently resolved to allow annual dating. The markers are placed in the winter and spring depending on the availability of data (e.g. using the winter d18O minimum, winter Sodium concentration maximum, spring dust/Calcium concentration maximum, or visual stratigraphy grey-scale peaks in the deepest parts). Across data gaps, markers are placed by interpolation or using other impurity species with different seasonality (e.g. using summer Ammonium or Nitrate peaks). Therefore, the criteria for where the annual markers are places vary between sections, and care should be taken when interpreting data on annual scale. Ages are reported as years before A.D. 2000 / 2000 CE, abbreviated b2k. Depths (in meter) are true depths below the undisturbed surface the year when drilling started.

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    PANGAEA
    Dataset . 2022
    Data sources: B2FIND
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      PANGAEA
      Dataset . 2022
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    Authors: Jensen, Nickolaj Feldt; Rode, Carsten; Møller, Eva B.;

    Supplementary data for: N.F. Jensen, C. Rode, E.B. Møller, 2021, "Hygrothermal assessment of internally insulated historic solid masonry walls with focus on the thermal bridge due to internal partition walls"This study investigated the hygrothermal performance of five thermal insulation systems for internal retrofitting purposes. Focus was on the hygrothermal performance near partition brick walls compared to the middle of the wall. The setup consisted of two 40-feet (12.2 m) insulated reefer containers with controlled indoor climate, reconfigured with several holes (1x2 m each) containing solid masonry walls with embedded wooden elements on the interior side, an internal brick partition wall and different internal insulation systems, with and without exterior hydrophobisation. Relative humidity and temperature were measured over five years in the masonry/insulation interface and near the interior surface, in the centre of the test field and near the internal partition wall. In addition, calibrated numerical simulations were performed for further investigation of the thermal bridge effect. The datasets comprises:1) Measurements from the experimental setup (hourly and 96-hour average values)2) Visual representations of the measurements from the experimental setup 3) VTT mould growth modelling (calculation files and results)4) Calibrated Delphin simulation models (including Output JPG files)

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    DTU Data
    Dataset . 2021
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: DTU Data
    https://doi.org/10.11583/dtu.1...
    Dataset . 2021
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
    https://doi.org/10.11583/dtu.1...
    Dataset . 2021
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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      DTU Data
      Dataset . 2021
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: DTU Data
      https://doi.org/10.11583/dtu.1...
      Dataset . 2021
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
      https://doi.org/10.11583/dtu.1...
      Dataset . 2021
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
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    Authors: Bin Abdul Rahman, Abdul Halim; Sørensen Alves Monteiro, Miguel;

    This project was set out to explore the role of the Turing Test in the development of Artificial Intelligence (AI), with emphasis on the historical perspective. This report contains an introductory presentation of the Turing Test and Artificial Intelligence. Furthermore, it presents two methods for analysis. The first method is a quantitative search in extracting the number of results from Google Scholars for search range between 1950 and 2019. The searched terms are ‘Turing Test’ and ‘Artificial Intelligence’. The second method is the one used for the analysis of two case studies, ELIZA and Google Duplex. In exploring the historical development, ELIZA is an early research topic from 1966 and Google Duplex is a contemporary project from 2018. This report concludes that the Turing Test appears to have played a role in the historical development of AI. Results from the quantitative search show that there is an exponential growth, followed by a short stabilisation, before it begins to decay towards the last decade. Both case studies failed when subjected to a strict Turing Test. Though when subjected to the Total Turing Test, Google Duplex seems to surpass it. Finally, this report also concludes that the Turing Test may no longer be relevant, as mediums for AI have evolved beyond text-based and most developments are no longer concerned with tricking humans.

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