Publisher: Umeå universitet, Institutionen för kultur- och medievetenskaper
Illustrated price catalogues were published and distributed during the second half of the nineteenth century in every country that was affected by industrialization. The illustrations that were used in these catalogues intermingled with several contemporary image-systems; the centuries old practice of engraving, the relatively new practise of using photography, the illustrated publication, displays at world exhibitions and educational displays in public museums. The aim of this article is to investigate the circulation of knowledge that the photographs in the illustrated price catalogues took part in and to interrogate them as object photography. My journey includes three steps: early photography from the 1840s, the illustrated price catalogues of the 1880s, and contemporary antiques journals. This article discusses what knowledge was/is produced, maintained, transformed, and transferred by the use of object photography in these contexts. To this purpose, object photography is identified as a genre of images that generates knowledge that negotiates questions of time and historicity. I note that this is a quality that made object photography pertinent for nineteenth-century manufacturing and marketing and continues to be relevant for the historic revivalism and antiques business today.
Publisher: Umeå universitet, Enheten för ekonomisk historia
We explore the decisions in Parliament about the Swedish tax deduction for commuting since the 1980s. The aim is to explain the continuity of the tax regulation despite several attempts from motions in Parliament and public investigations to reform it towards environmental goals, e.g., reduced emissions of CO2. When reforms have been proposed, the political majority in Parliament has regardless of political colour voted against and retreated to the original motives for the tax deduction; economic growth and the enlargement of regional labour markets. The interests of Swedish mass motorisation succeeded in finding the arguments to slow down reforms and at the same time reinforce the path dependency by adding new legitimacy to the regulation. If the attempts to reform the tax deduction had been part of a broader reform of the transport sector and the tax system, they might have succeeded in breaking with the old path.
Based on digital readings of all records from the Swedish parliament1867–2019, we examine how the concept ‘propaganda’ was used in the debates. To track the concept, we have extracted word window co-occurrences, bigrams, and keywords. Research on the history of propaganda in liberal democracies has emphasized that the meaning of the concept was open-ended before WWI. By 1945, it had been contaminated by authoritarian propaganda, and its negative connotations were cemented at least by the 1960s. Our analysis, however, shows that ‘propaganda’ was used mainly in a negative sense from 1867 to 2019. Nevertheless, it was also possible to use ‘propaganda’ in a positive and neutral sense between the 1910s and 1980s. We suggest that a period of deideologization in Sweden post-WWII made it possible to use ‘propaganda’ as long as the issues were seen as non-controversial. The radicalization in the late-1960s meant that authorities and previously non-controversial issues became contested. To suggest one-directional ‘propaganda’ in order to implement what politicians had decided was in people’s best interest became difficult int his context. In this new communication setting, ‘information’ was a more flexible term in contexts where ‘propaganda’ had previously been used in a neutral or positive sense.
We reconstruct the Holocene shore displacement of the Vastervik-Gamlebyviken area on the southeast coast of Sweden, characterised by a maritime cultural landscape and archaeological significance since the Mesolithic. Sediment cores were retrieved from four lake basins that have been raised above sea level due to the postglacial land uplift and eustatic sea level changes after the melting of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet. The cores were radiocarbon dated and analysed for loss on ignition and diatoms. The isolation thresholds of the basins were determined using LiDAR data. The results provide evidence for the initiation of the first Littorina Sea transgression in this area at 8.5 thousand calibrated years before present (cal. ka BP). A relative sea level rise by similar to 7 m a.s.l. is recorded between 8.0 and 7.5 cal. ka BP with a highstand at similar to 22 m a.s.l. between 7.5 and 6.2 cal. ka BP. These phases coincide with the second and third Littorina Sea transgressions, respectively, in the Blekinge area, southern Sweden and are consistent with the final deglaciation of North America. After 6.2 cal. ka BP, the relative sea level dropped below 22 m a.s.l., and remained at similar to 20 m a.s.l. until 4.6 cal. ka BP coinciding with the fourth Littorina Sea transgression in Blekinge. From 4.6 to 4.2 cal. ka BP, the shore displacement shows a regression rate of 10 mm a(-1) followed by a slowdown with a mean value of 4.6 mm a(-1) until 1.6 cal. ka BP, when the relative sea level dropped below 3.3 m a.s.l. The Middle to Late Holocene highstand and other periods of minor sea level transgressions and/or higher salinity between 6.2 and 1.7 cal. ka BP are attributed to a combination of warmer climate and higher inflow of saline waters in the southern Baltic Sea due to stronger westerlies, caused by variations in the North Atlantic atmospheric patterns.
In Sweden, integration is a pressing issue particularly following the large influx of immigrants in 2015. Swedish municipalities play an important role in civic integration, with responsibility for newly arrived immigrants receiving a basic understanding of Swedish society, their rights and obligations. We analyse data from 204 applications granted funding 2016/2017 for projects improving the integration of refugees into society by co-operation between municipalities and other actors. Using thematic analysis, we identify two broad themes. One concerning the ‘what’ of integration–the Swedish values, norms and behaviours that immigrants are expected to learn in order to become ‘good’ Swedish citizens, and the other concerning the means or the ‘how’ of integration. However, although these projects are well-meaning, they may have normalizing and disciplining effects whereby the immigrant is constructed as subordinate, as the Other. Swedish gender-equality is heavily emphasized and we see how, in relation to this, the immigrant is constructed as unmodern, bound by tradition and unequal. Particularly immigrant women are produced as passive objects rather than active subjects, in need of special women’s activities and lacking as parents in comparison with the Swedish ideal.
Publisher: Umeå universitet, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier
Previous research has paid little attention to the multiple meanings of the concept of forest restoration. To gain a more comprehensive view of forest restoration, this paper compares the US forest restoration debate of the 1940s and 1990s, in the disciplines of ecology and forestry. The paper focuses on historical approaches to pasts and futures, and on "sociotechnical imaginaries " providing societal legitimacy to restoration ventures. Historical scientific papers constitute the paper's empirical sources. The analysis shows that, among ecologists and foresters, forest restoration of the 1940s was oriented towards efficiency and challenges such as wood demands during World War II, whereas restoration of the 1990s was oriented towards conservation and environmental challenges. The approaches of the 1940s' ecologists and foresters seem motivated by a sociotechnical imaginary connecting forest restoration to societal progress, whereas the approaches of their 1990s' counterparts seem motivated by a sociotechnical imaginary connecting forest restoration to the task of mitigating society's impacts. Based on the conclusions, it is argued that future research on forest restoration would benefit from comparing the idealized pasts of both yield-and conservation-oriented conceptions of forest restoration.
Annette Schophuus Jensen; Troels Højsgaard Jørgensen; Christina Christersson; Edit Nagy; Juha Sinisalo; Eva Furenäs; Ola Gjesdal; Peter Eriksson; Niels Vejlstrup; Bengt Johansson; +9 more
Annette Schophuus Jensen; Troels Højsgaard Jørgensen; Christina Christersson; Edit Nagy; Juha Sinisalo; Eva Furenäs; Ola Gjesdal; Peter Eriksson; Niels Vejlstrup; Bengt Johansson; Joanna Hlebowicz; Gottfried Greve; Mikael Dellborg; Helge Skulstad; Per Kvidal; Eero Jokinen; Heikki Sairanen; Ulf Thilén; Lars Søndergaard;
Background Little is known about the cause of death (CoD) in patients with transposition of the great arteries palliated with a Mustard or Senning procedure. The aim was to describe the CoD for patients with the Mustard and Senning procedure during short‐ (<10 years), mid‐ (10–20 years), and long‐term (>20 years) follow‐up after the operation. Methods and Results This is a retrospective, descriptive multicenter cohort study including all Nordic patients (Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden) who underwent a Mustard or Senning procedure between 1967 and 2003. Patients who died within 30 days after the index operation were excluded. Among 968 patients with Mustard/Senning palliated transposition of the great arteries, 814 patients were eligible for the study, with a mean follow‐up of 33.6 years. The estimated risk of all‐cause mortality reached 36.0% after 43 years of follow‐up, and the risk of death was highest among male patients as compared with female patients ( P =0.004). The most common CoD was sudden cardiac death (SCD), followed by heart failure/heart transplantation accounting for 29% and 27%, respectively. During short‐, mid‐, and long‐term follow‐up, there was a change in CoD with SCD accounting for 23.7%, 46.6%, and 19.0% ( P =0.002) and heart failure/heart transplantation 18.6%, 22.4%, and 46.6% ( P =0.0005), respectively. Conclusions Among patients corrected with Mustard or Senning transposition of the great arteries, the most common CoD is SCD followed by heart failure/heart transplantation. The CoD changes as the patients age, with SCD as the most common cause in adolescence and heart failure as the dominant cause in adulthood. Furthermore, the risk of all‐cause mortality, SCD, and death attributable to heart failure or heart transplantation was increased in men >10 years after the Mustard/Senning operation.
Cristiano Vignola; Martina Hättestrand; Anton Bonnier; Martin Finné; Adam Izdebski; Christos Katrantsiotis; Katerina Kouli; Georgios C. Liakopoulos; Elin Norström; Maria Papadaki; +3 more
Cristiano Vignola; Martina Hättestrand; Anton Bonnier; Martin Finné; Adam Izdebski; Christos Katrantsiotis; Katerina Kouli; Georgios C. Liakopoulos; Elin Norström; Maria Papadaki; Nichola A. Strandberg; Erika Weiberg; Alessia Masi;
This study provides a high-resolution reconstruction of the vegetation of the Argive Plain (Peloponnese, Greece) covering 5000 years from the Early Bronze Age onwards. The well dated pollen record from ancient Lake Lerna has been interpreted in the light of archaeological and historical sources, climatic data from the same core and other regional proxies. Our results demonstrate a significant degree of human impact on the environments of the Argive Plain throughout the study period. During the Early Bronze Age evidence of a thermophilous vegetation is seen in the pollen record, representing the mixed deciduous oak woodland of the Peloponnesian uplands. The plain was mainly used for the cultivation of cereals, whereas local fen conditions prevailed at the coring site. Towards the end of this period an increasing water table is recorded and the fen turns into a lake, despite more arid conditions. In the Late Bronze Age, the presence of important palatial centres modified the landscape resulting in decrease of mixed deciduous oak woodland and increase in open land, partly used for grazing. Possibly, the human management produced a permanent hydrological change at Lake Lerna. From the Archaic period onwards the increasing human pressure in association with local drier conditions caused landscape instability, as attested by a dramatic alluvial event recorded in the Pinus curve at the end of the Hellenistic Age. Wet conditions coincided with Roman times and favoured a forest regeneration pattern in the area, at the same time as we see the most intensive olive cultivation in the pollen record. The establishment of an economic landscape primarily based on pastures is recorded in the Byzantine period and continues until modern times. Overgrazing and fires in combination with arid conditions likely caused degradation of the vegetation into garrigue, as seen in the area of the Argive Plain today. Introduction Study area - Geomorphology and hydrology of the Argive Plain - Vegetation - Climate - Human occupation Materials and methods - Sediment sequence and age-depth model - Pollen analysis Results - LPAZ 1: 486–202 cm, ca. 4760–2240 BP (2810–290 BCE) - LPAZ 2: 203–42 cm, ca. 2240–270 BP (290 BCE-1680 CE) - LPAZ 3: 41–0 cm, ca. 270 BP-present Interpretation and discussion - The Early Bronze Age (5150–4000 BP) - The Middle and Late Bronze Age (4000–3150 BP) - The end of the Late Bronze Age and the Early Iron Age (3150–2650 BP) - Archaic, Classical and Hellenistic period (2650–2096 BP) - The Roman period (2096–1620 BP) - Byzantine and Medieval period (1620–487 BP) - Ottoman and modern Greek period (487 BP-present) Conclusions
Since the last Ice Age ( ca 115 000–11 700 years ago), the geographical ranges of most plants and animals have shifted, expanded or contracted. Understanding the timing, geographical patterns and drivers of past changes in insect communities is essential for evaluating the biodiversity implications of future climate changes, yet our knowledge of long-term patterns is limited. We applied a network modelling approach to the recent fossil record of northwestern European beetles to investigate how their taxonomic and trait composition changed during the past 16 000 years. We found two major changes in beetle faunas 4000–3500 and 10 000–9500 years ago, coinciding with periods of human population growth in the Late Holocene and climate warming in the Early Holocene. Our results demonstrate that humans have affected insect biodiversity since at least the introduction of agropastoralism, with landscape-scale effects that can be observed at sites away from areas of direct human impact.
Although preterm birth is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality in advanced economies, evidence about the consequences of prematurity in later life is limited. Using Swedish registers for cohorts born 1982–94 (N = 1,087,750), we examine the effects of preterm birth on school grades at age 16 using sibling fixed effects models. We further examine how school grades are affected by degree of prematurity and the compensating roles of family socio-economic resources and characteristics of school districts. Our results show that the negative effects of preterm birth are observed mostly among children born extremely preterm (<28 weeks); children born moderately preterm (32–<37 weeks) suffer no ill effects. We do not find any evidence for a moderating effect of parental socio-economic resources. Children born extremely preterm and in the top decile of school districts achieve as good grades as children born at full term in an average school district.