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12 Research products, page 1 of 2

  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage
  • 2018-2022
  • Publikationer från Umeå universitet
  • Rural Digital Europe

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jönsson, Jimmy; Priebe, Janina; Marald, Erland; Lundmark, Tomas;
    Publisher: Umeå universitet, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier
    Country: Sweden

    Previous research has paid little attention to the multiple meanings of the concept of forest restoration. To gain a more comprehensive view of forest restoration, this paper compares the US forest restoration debate of the 1940s and 1990s, in the disciplines of ecology and forestry. The paper focuses on historical approaches to pasts and futures, and on "sociotechnical imaginaries " providing societal legitimacy to restoration ventures. Historical scientific papers constitute the paper's empirical sources. The analysis shows that, among ecologists and foresters, forest restoration of the 1940s was oriented towards efficiency and challenges such as wood demands during World War II, whereas restoration of the 1990s was oriented towards conservation and environmental challenges. The approaches of the 1940s' ecologists and foresters seem motivated by a sociotechnical imaginary connecting forest restoration to societal progress, whereas the approaches of their 1990s' counterparts seem motivated by a sociotechnical imaginary connecting forest restoration to the task of mitigating society's impacts. Based on the conclusions, it is argued that future research on forest restoration would benefit from comparing the idealized pasts of both yield-and conservation-oriented conceptions of forest restoration.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jörgensen, Hans;
    Publisher: Umeå universitet, Enheten för ekonomisk historia
    Country: Sweden

    In this extensive and detail-rich monograph, Zsuzsanna Varga explores Hungarian agriculture during the Cold War. The so-called “agricultural miracle”, with a question mark, relates to the successful transfer of Western technology and know-how, which in the 1970s and early 1980s had transformed the Hungarian countryside, dominated by producer cooperatives, far from the Stalinist kolkhoz-type. The Hungarian agricultural miracle? Sovietization and Americanization in a communist Country by Szuzsanna Varga - translated by Frank T. Zsigó, Lexington Books, 2020, 354 pp., $125.00 (hardback), ISBN 978-1-7936-3435-1, $45.00 (eBook), ISBN 978-1-7936-3436-8.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Kanbar, Hussein; Kanbar, Hussein Jaafar; Tran Le, Thai; Olajos, Fredrik; Englund, Göran; Holmboe, Michael;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Countries: Sweden, France

    Abstract Purpose Intact lake sediments reflect the development of terrestrial ecosystems. This development can be understood by decoding mineral and geochemical information of sedimentary archives. Therefore, we characterized a Holocene lake sediment core and revealed bulk to micro-scale variations via a combination of geochemical techniques and statistical methods. Methods A 2.3 m sediment core was collected from Hotagen, a lake in west-central Sweden; a sediment sample was collected every 5 cm. A part of each sediment sample was kept untreated (named bulk) and another part was size-fractionated into < 4, 4–16, 16–64, and > 64 µm subsamples. Characterization was then made with respect to grain size distribution (GSD), physico-chemical parameters, geochemical properties, organic composition, and mineralogy. The sediments were investigated at bulk, micro-, and elemental scales using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT), and scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM–EDX). Results The deepest sediment was identified as glacial till dating back to the Late Pleistocene. The bulk sediments showed a clear distinction between 0–195 cm (unit 1, U1) and 200–225 cm (unit 2, U2) depths. Quartz and feldspar minerals decreased and organic matter and clay minerals increased from the till towards the lower limit of U1. The development in the sedimentary properties marked the transformation of the terrestrial ecosystem from glacier-covered land to vegetated areas. This development was also well reflected by the appearance of X-ray amorphous materials and the formation of distinct organo-mineral aggregates; chlorite was the predominant clay mineral in these aggregates. The geochemical variation between U2 and U1 sediments was further established by resolving the DRIFT spectral components through multivariate curve resolution alternating least square (MCR-ALS). The U1 sediments settled over a period of ~ 7500 years and showed comparable mineral, geochemical, and organic composition. However, the size-fractionated sediments, mainly < 4 µm, showed diverse mineral and geochemical composition. Indeed, these sediments were distinct by containing relatively higher amounts of X-ray amorphous materials and clay minerals, the latter had variable Na, Mg, and K contents. Conclusion The combined use of geochemical and statistical approaches used in this study followed the mineral and geochemical development of sediments that had settled during the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene Epochs. Finally, the U2 sediments marked the terrestrial ecosystem development that occurred during the late glaciation, deglaciation, and post-glaciation periods. Graphical abstract

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kathleen D. Morrison; Emily Hammer; Oliver Boles; Marco Madella; Nicola Whitehouse; Marie-José Gaillard; Jennifer Bates; Marc Vander Linden; Stefania Merlo; Alice Yao; +54 more
    Countries: United Kingdom, Spain, United Kingdom, United Kingdom, Germany, Germany, Poland, Switzerland, Netherlands, United Kingdom ...

    In the 12,000 years preceding the Industrial Revolution, human activities led to significant changes in land cover, plant and animal distributions, surface hydrology, and biochemical cycles. Earth system models suggest that this anthropogenic land cover change influenced regional and global climate. However, the representation of past land use in earth system models is currently oversimplified. As a result, there are large uncertainties in the current understanding of the past and current state of the earth system. In order to improve representation of the variety and scale of impacts that past land use had on the earth system, a global effort is underway to aggregate and synthesize archaeological and historical evidence of land use systems. Here we present a simple, hierarchical classification of land use systems designed to be used with archaeological and historical data at a global scale and a schema of codes that identify land use practices common to a range of systems, both implemented in a geospatial database. The classification scheme and database resulted from an extensive process of consultation with researchers worldwide. Our scheme is designed to deliver consistent, empirically robust data for the improvement of land use models, while simultaneously allowing for a comparative, detailed mapping of land use relevant to the needs of historical scholars. To illustrate the benefits of the classification scheme and methods for mapping historical land use, we apply it to Mesopotamia and Arabia at 6 kya (c. 4000 BCE). The scheme will be used to describe land use by the Past Global Changes (PAGES) LandCover6k working group, an international project comprised of archaeologists, historians, geographers, paleoecologists, and modelers. Beyond this, the scheme has a wide utility for creating a common language between research and policy communities, linking archaeologists with climate modelers, biodiversity conservation workers and initiatives. Fil: Morrison, Kathleen D.. University of Pennsylvania; Estados Unidos Fil: Hammer, Emily. University of Pennsylvania; Estados Unidos Fil: Boles, Oliver. University of Pennsylvania; Estados Unidos Fil: Madella, Marco. University of the Witwatersrand; Sudáfrica. Universitat Pompeu Fabra; España Fil: Whitehouse, Nicola. University of Glasgow; Reino Unido Fil: Gaillard, Marie-Jose. Linnaeus University; Suecia Fil: Bates, Jennifer. University of Pennsylvania; Estados Unidos Fil: Linden, Marc Vander. Bournemouth University; Sudáfrica Fil: Merlo, Stefania. University of the Witwatersrand; Sudáfrica Fil: Yao, Alice. University of Chicago; Estados Unidos Fil: Popova, Laura. Arizona State University; Estados Unidos Fil: Hill, Austin Chad. University of Pennsylvania; Estados Unidos Fil: Antolin, Ferran. Universiat Basel; Suiza Fil: Bauer, Andrew. University of Stanford; Estados Unidos Fil: Biagetti, Stefano. University of the Witwatersrand; Sudáfrica. Universitat Pompeu Fabra; España Fil: Bishop, Rosie R.. University of Stavanger; Noruega Fil: Buckland, Phillip. Universidad de Umea; Suecia Fil: Cruz, Pablo. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - Salta. Unidad Ejecutora en Ciencias Sociales Regionales y Humanidades. Universidad Nacional de Jujuy. Unidad Ejecutora en Ciencias Sociales Regionales y Humanidades; Argentina Fil: Dreslerová, Dagmar. Institute Of Archaeology Of The Academy Of Sciences Of The Czech Republic; Hungría Fil: Dusseldorp, Gerrit. Leiden University; Países Bajos Fil: Ellis, Erle C.. University of Maryland; Estados Unidos. University Of Johannesburg; Sudáfrica Fil: Filipovich, Ruben Eduardo. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - Salta. Instituto de Bio y Geociencias del NOA. Universidad Nacional de Salta. Facultad de Ciencias Naturales. Museo de Ciencias Naturales. Instituto de Bio y Geociencias del NOA; Argentina Fil: Foster, Thomas. University of Tulsa; Estados Unidos Fil: Hannaford, Matthew J.. Lincoln University.; Nueva Zelanda Fil: Harrison, Sandy P.. University of Reading; Reino Unido Fil: Hazarika, Manjil. Cotton University; India Fil: Herold, Hajnalka. University of Exeter; Reino Unido Fil: Hilpert, Johanna. Universitat zu Köln; Alemania Fil: Kaplan, Jed O.. The University Of Hong Kong; Hong Kong Fil: Kay, Andrea. Max Planck Institute For The Science Of Human History; Alemania Fil: Goldewijk, Kees Klein. Utrecht University; Países Bajos Fil: Kolár, Jan. Masaryk University; República Checa Fil: Kyazike, Elizabeth. Kyambogo University; Uganda Fil: Laabs, Julian. University of Bern; Suiza Fil: Lancelotti, Carla. Universitat Pompeu Fabra; España Fil: Lane, Paul. University of the Witwatersrand; Sudáfrica. University of Cambridge; Estados Unidos Fil: Lawrence, Dan. University of Durham; Reino Unido Fil: Lewis, Krista. University of Arkansas; Estados Unidos Fil: Lombardo, Umberto. University of Bern; Suiza Fil: Lucarini, Giulio. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche; Italia. University of Naples; Italia Fil: Arroyo Kalin, Manuel. Colegio Universitario de Londres; Reino Unido Fil: Marchant, Rob. University of York; Reino Unido Fil: Mayle, Francis. University of Reading; Reino Unido Fil: McClatchie, Meriel. University College; Irlanda Fil: McLeester, Madeleine. Dartmouth College; Estados Unidos Fil: Mooney, Scott. Unsw Sydney; Australia Fil: Moskal-Del Hoyo, Magdalena. Wladyslaw Szafer Institute Of Botany Of The Polish Academy Of Sciences; Polonia Fil: Navarrete, Vanessa. Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona; España Fil: Ndiema, Emmanuel. National Museums Of Kenya; Kenia Fil: Neves, Eduardo Góes. Universidade de Sao Paulo; Brasil Fil: Nowak, Marek. Jagiellonian University; Polonia Fil: Out, Welmoed A.. Moesgaard Museum; Dinamarca Fil: Petrie, Cameron. Universitat Pompeu Fabra; España. University of Cambridge; Estados Unidos Fil: Phelps, Leanne N.. Royal Botanic Gardens; Reino Unido. University of Edinburgh; Reino Unido Fil: Szakonyi, Zsolt. Eötvös University; Hungría Fil: Rostain, Stéphen. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique; Francia Fil: Russell, Thembi. University of the Witwatersrand; Sudáfrica Fil: Sluyter, Andrew. Louisiana State University; Estados Unidos Fil: Styring, Amy K.. University of Oxford; Reino Unido Fil: Tamanaha, Eduardo. The Mamirauá Sustainable Development Institute; Brasil Fil: Thomas, Evert. The Alliance of Bioversity International and CIAT; Perú Fil: Veerasamy, Selvakumar. Tamil University; India Fil: Welton, Lynn. University of the Witwatersrand; Sudáfrica Fil: Zanon, Marco. Institute of Pre- and Protohistoric Archaeology; Alemania

  • Publication . Conference object . Part of book or chapter of book . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Michele Persiani; Thomas Hellström;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Country: Sweden
    Project: EC | SOCRATES (721619), EC | SOCRATES (721619)

    In multi-agent systems, the ability to infer intentions allows artificial agents to act proactively and with partial information. In this paper we propose an algorithm to infer a speakers intentions with natural language analysis combined with plan recognition. We define a Natural Language Understanding component to classify semantic roles from sentences into partially instantiated actions, that are interpreted as the intention of the speaker. These actions are grounded to arbitrary, hand-defined task domains. Intent recognition with partial actions is statistically evaluated with several planning domains. We then define a Human-Robot Interaction setting where both utterance classification and plan recognition are tested using a Pepper robot. We further address the issue of missing parameters in declared intentions and robot commands by leveraging the Principle of Rational Action, which is embedded in the plan recognition phase.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Emil Marklund;
    Publisher: Informa UK Limited
    Country: Sweden

    By exploring demographic data on teachers through a Bordieusian lens, this study aims to analyse the socio-economic background of primary school teachers in northern Sweden depending on gender and type. The rural area under study follows a national development where the number of primarily female teachers and junior school teachers increased rapidly between 1870 and 1910. The results show an occupational reproduction of teachers between mother and daughter that is not present to the same extent in other parent–child combinations. Furthermore, almost half of the teachers born within the region came from a farming background, yet children of higher professionals showed the highest probability of becoming a teacher. The other group in the upper stratum, higher managers, instead had a very low probability of becoming a teacher. This thus suggests that the teacher track was more associated with a social background representing higher cultural capital rather than economic capital.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Anna Sténs; Erland Mårald;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: Sweden

    Sweden is a leading country in governance of property rights, according to global assessments, but Swedish landowners currently argue that their forest property rights are being eroded. Thus, the aim of this article is to investigate when and why the current debate on forest property rights came about, and its resemblance to discussion in an ‘echo-chamber’. This refers to an arena in which information is accessed from limited sources and a small number of actors with ideological homogeneity may exert substantial influence and reinforce established opinions. Hence, it may spread disinformation, increase polemic tensions, and hamper deliberative policy processes in society. We assess the resemblance by identifying where the issue is debated in printed news media, the active actors, the interests they represent and how they problematize property rights, i.e. the claims they make and the claims’ homogeneity. Our results show that the debate has intensified in recent years, but several issues are not new. The debate is mainly limited to the Swedish rural business press and rural conservative press. Moreover, the main claim-makers are representatives of land and forest owner organizations, and members of agrarian and conservative political parties, which have close organizational and individual connections, thereby forming a metaphorical ‘chamber’. The ‘echo’ consists of repetitive claims about withdrawal and management rights, with no efforts to examine and contextualize complex aspects of private property rights in a changing society. The debate about forest ownership in an echo-chamber is problematic in several ways. It hampers efforts of claim-makers in the chamber to reach out, undermines current systems’ legitimacy, and locks important questions about sustainable forestry and property rights into a narrow societal sphere. Finansierat av Skogssällskapet Är äganderätten hotad? En historisk jämförelse av gränserna för den privata äganderätten till skogsmark

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Buckland, Paul; Buckland, Philip I.; Prosser, Tim;
    Publisher: Umeå universitet, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet
    Country: Sweden

    The Roman sites in Edlington Wood, three miles west-south-west of Doncaster, South Yorkshire, first came to wider notice as a result of finds by the woodman in the 1930s and the material was of sufficient interest for Philip Corder to use it as the basis for a paper in a festschrift to O. G. S. Crawford. Most of these finds and later material were deposited in Doncaster Museum, although others went to the owners and local metal detectorists. In 1970 a threat of quarrying led to a detailed survey of the site by the Royal Commission on Historical Monuments and limited excavation on one site. Two large areas within the Wood were cleared but remain as improved grassland. The recent availability of Lidar imagery allows the occupation sites and fragments of field system located by ground survey to be placed in a broader context of small rectangular fields and some attempt at a landscape chronology to be made. The cultivation of the fields in a system of cord rig is discussed.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Linderholm, Johan; Macphail, Richard; Buckland, Philip I.; Östman, Sofi; Eriksson, Samuel; Wallin, Jan-Erik; Engelmark, Roger;
    Publisher: Umeå universitet, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet
    Country: Sweden

    Macrofossil and geoarchaeological data from a variety of contexts and periods at Vik can provide either in situ or proxyinformation on the human – environment interactions at the site through time. The aim of this paper is to discuss settlementactivity patterns through time and space, with special emphasis on agriculture and animal husbandry strategies. The calcareousshell bank deposits at the site led to a reduction of the amount of analysed citric soluble phosphate and are apparentlyalso linked to very poor macrofossil preservation. The analysis shows that farming in the pre-Roman Iron Age involvedanimal management and manuring of fields where naked and hulled barley were cultivated. Stock was kept in the long houses.There are also indications that animals grazed along the shore. In the Roman Iron Age there is no clear evidence of keepinglivestock indoors; byre residues were instead found in house-associated waste heaps, where chemical data indicate thatdung was left to ferment. Near-house Roman Iron Age waste deposits were also characterised by latrine and fish processingwaste, as well as by high temperature artisan residues – fuel ash and iron working materials. Analysis of soil chemical samplesindicates an increase and intensification of occupation over time during the pre-Roman Iron Age and the Roman Iron Age.Viking-medieval features were also a remarkable source for monitoring latrine, byre and industrial waste, including the secondaryuse of water holes and wells that supplied water to both people and animals.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Persiani, Michele; Hellström, Thomas;
    Publisher: Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap
    Country: Sweden

    Affordances denote actions that can be performed in the presence of different objects, or possibility of action in an environment. In robotic systems, affordances and actions may suffer from poor semantic generalization capabilities due to the high amount of required hand-crafted specifications. To alleviate this issue, we propose a method to mine for object-action pairs in free text corpora, successively training and evaluating different prediction models of affordance based on word embeddings.