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  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage
  • Ghent University Academic Bibliography
  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage

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  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2012
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Cesare de Filippo; Koen Bostoen; Mark Stoneking; Brigitte Pakendorf;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: Belgium, France
    Project: EC | KONGOKING (284126)

    International audience; The expansion of Bantu languages represents one of the most momentous events in the history of Africa. While it is well accepted that Bantu languages spread from their homeland (Cameroon/Nigeria) approximately 5000 years ago (ya), there is no consensus about the timing and geographical routes underlying this expansion. Two main models of Bantu expansion have been suggested: The 'early-split' model claims that the most recent ancestor of Eastern languages expanded north of the rainforest towards the Great Lakes region approximately 4000 ya, while the 'late-split' model proposes that Eastern languages diversified from Western languages south of the rainforest approximately 2000 ya. Furthermore, it is unclear whether the language dispersal was coupled with the movement of people, raising the question of language shift versus demic diffusion. We use a novel approach taking into account both the spatial and temporal predictions of the two models and formally test these predictions with linguistic and genetic data. Our results show evidence for a demic diffusion in the genetic data, which is confirmed by the correlations between genetic and linguistic distances. While there is little support for the early-split model, the late-split model shows a relatively good fit to the data. Our analyses demonstrate that subsequent contact among languages/populations strongly affected the signal of the initial migration via isolation by distance.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lieve Macken; Daniel Prou; Arda Tezcan;
    Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
    Country: Belgium

    This paper studies the impact of machine translation (MT) on the translation workflow at the Directorate-General for Translation (DGT), focusing on two language pairs and two MT paradigms: English-into-French with statistical MT and English-into-Finnish with neural MT. We collected data from 20 professional translators at DGT while they carried out real translation tasks in normal working conditions. The participants enabled/disabled MT for half of the segments in each document. They filled in a survey at the end of the logging period. We measured the productivity gains (or losses) resulting from the use of MT and examined the relationship between technical effort and temporal effort. The results show that while the usage of MT leads to productivity gains on average, this is not the case for all translators. Moreover, the two technical effort indicators used in this study show weak correlations with post-editing time. The translators&rsquo perception of their speed gains was more or less in line with the actual results. Reduction of typing effort is the most frequently mentioned reason why participants preferred working with MT, but also the psychological benefits of not having to start from scratch were often mentioned.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Erika Graham-Goering; Michael Jones;
    Publisher: OpenEdition
    Country: Belgium

    L’administration de la vicomté de Limoges par Arthur II de Bretagne, qui l’avait acquise par mariage en 1275, et par ses successeurs n’a, jusqu’ici, pas été sérieusement étudiée. La découverte de quelques rares témoignages financiers datant du règne de Charles de Blois et de Jeanne de Penthièvre, duc et duchesse de Bretagne (1341-1364) et vicomte et vicomtesse de Limoges à partir de 1343, nous permet d’examiner en détail comment la vicomté était gouvernée et quelles ressources elle offrait à ses souverains. Un compte du receveur de Charles de Blois à Limoges pour la période 1344-1347 et les comptes du prévôt de la châtellenie de Ségur-le-Château pour 1345-1346, qui sont parmi les plus anciens témoignages de ce genre pour la vicomté, illustrent les développements sociaux, économiques et militaires connus par celle-ci alors que Limoges s’impliquait de plus en plus dans la succession contestée du duché de Bretagne (après la mort de Jean III en 1341), mais aussi dans le conflit plus général qui allait engloutir l’ouest de la France dans la première phase de la guerre de Cent Ans. Une édition des comptes de Ségur est annexée à l’étude. The administration of the viscounty of Limoges by Arthur II of Brittany, who had acquired it by marriage in 1275, and his successors has not been seriously studied. The discovery of some rare financial evidence dating to the reign of Charles de Blois and Jeanne de Penthievre, duke and duchess of Brittany (1341-1364), and viscount and viscountess of Limoges from 1343 onwards, allows us to examine in some detail how the viscounty was governed and what resources it offered its rulers. An account of the receiver of Charles de Blois in Limoges for the period 1344-1347 and the accounts of the provost of the castellany of Segur-le-Chateau for 1345-1346, amongst the earliest such records surviving for the viscounty, illustrate social, economic and military developments as Limoges became more and more involved not only in the disputed succession to the duchy of Brittany (following the death of John III in 1341) but also the more general conflict that would engulf western France in the first phase of the Hundred Years War. An edition of the Segur accounts is appended to the study.

  • Open Access Italian
    Authors: 
    Stefania Marzo; Claudia Crocco;
    Publisher: John Benjamins
    Country: Belgium

    The aim of this paper is to examine the distribution of presentative constructions in contemporary Italian and to verify whether their occurrence depends on language external factors. Presentative constructions have been studied particularly by Italian linguists during the Eighties, and were defined as being ‘typical’ of so-called Neostandard Italian. The analysis is based on three corpora of contemporary Italian, viz. two oral corpora (LIP and CLIPS) and one written corpus (CORIS/CODIS). Counter to expectations, presentative constructions are far from frequent in contemporary Italian and therefore cannot be considered as being ‘typical’ of Neostandard Italian. They are, however, attested both in written and oral Italian, with a clear preference for the latter context, in which they are evenly distributed in formal and informal registers. We conclude by discussing the differences between the linguistic phenomena traditionally included into the ‘feature pool’ of Neostandard Italian.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Marc De Groote;
    Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH
    Country: Belgium

    AbstractNot until 2006 could the scholarly community welcome the first critical edition of the 103 Quaestiones et responsiones ascribed to Anastasius of Sinai (CPG 7746; M. Richard / J.A. Munitiz. CCSG, 59). However, this publication did not solve all topics surrounding Anastasius’s work, because 21 Greek manuscripts contain still another florilegium, the so-called Σωτήριος dating from before 900 AD, whose core is formed by 88 ἐρωταποκρίσεις. Between 914 and 927 a Slavonic translation thereof was made which has been preserved in the so-called Изборник, a codex from 1073. The first and sole critical edition of the Slavonic text was made by O.M. Bodjanskij (1845). The 900th anniversary of the Изборник in 1973 incited the interest in the Greek original. Eventually, in 1996 the decision to edit the Greek text was made, mainly under the impetus of Prof. em. Dr F. J. Thomson. This edition, originally started by Dr D.Tj. Sieswerda, will be continued by the author of this article in close cooperation with Dr L. Sels, specialist in Church Slavonic.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Delphine Munos;
    Publisher: Springer International Publishing
    Country: Belgium

    Drawing on Shoshana Felman’s distinction between “the texts of madness” and “the madness of texts,” Munos looks at Junot Diaz’s The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao (2007) and “The Cheater’s Guide to Love” (2012), a short story written in the second person, with a view to showing how the “reader-effects” at play in these two texts further ambiguate the suggested equation between cultural authenticity and Dominican hyper-masculinity. By comparing Diaz’s use of the first person in his novel and that of the second person in his short story, Munos’s aim is to show how “The Cheater’s Guide” shifts the ground of analysis even more irrevocably from thematizing the madness of Dominican hyper-masculinity to dramatizing the status of knowledge and the very possibility of interpretation.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Dirk Heirbaut;
    Country: Belgium

    Summary Although Raoul van Caenegem claimed otherwise, he had very strong views on what legal history should be. In his opinion, legal history belonged to the disciplinary field of history, not to law. The legal historian should not only chronicle past evolutions of the law, but also explain them. To this purpose, van Caenegem himself turned to sociology, trying to work with types and models in order to generalise. Van Caenegem rejected the idea of a Volksgeist and advocated to look at the European context in a comparative legal history. Nevertheless, his ‘Europe’ was limited to the founding members of the European Union, joined by England. He constructed legal history as a history of power and preferred to study groups of law makers instead of individuals. In his legal history, the European ‘Second Middle Ages’, from 1100 until 1750, stand out as the cradle of the modern rule of law, with a special role for the cities of medieval Flanders. Although well-known for a leading handbook promoting the idea of the ius commune, the common law of Europe, van Caenegem actually deemed custom to have been the primary source of law in medieval Europe, whereas the role of the ius commune had been, in his opinion, overestimated. As he showed many times during his distinguished career, van Caenegem wanted legal historians to take part in current debates. In the end, his main lesson from legal history was a plea for moderation, as taking a sound idea to its extreme leads to absurd or unintended consequences.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Jorge Medardo Poveda Yánez;
    Publisher: Pontifica Universidad Catolica del Ecuador
    Country: Belgium

    Entre las deliberaciones del arte contemporáneo hace falta un desentrañamiento no solo de sus resultados, sino de las nociones paradigmáticas que transversalmente han permeado una práctica de notorias exploraciones que se debaten entre lo heteróclito y lo experimental. Con una mirada panorámica de la praxis contemporánea en el arte, y manteniéndola siempre a la mano, propondré a la parergonalidad derridiana como un artilugio idóneo desde donde avizorar obras que han sido tachadas de incompletas, de carentes de seriedad o de meros chascos pero que podrán ser considerados, además, como cavilaciones sobre los espacios de transición y permutación entre el arte y la realidad. Los autores de la práctica contemporánea relucirán como pontífices, a veces imprudentes, a veces asertivos, entre estos dos territorios limítrofes cuya oposición y dependencia ha sido el implícito interés de una expresión artística más interesada en la liminalidad que en la obra de arte como centralidad irrefutable.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Leonid Kulikov;
    Publisher: Uniwersytet Lodzki (University of Lodz)
    Countries: Belgium, Poland

    This paper focuses on the mythology of Yamī and her twin-brother Yama (the first humans according to Indo-Iranian mythology), their non-human origin and some aspects of Yamī’s behaviour which presumably betray a number of features of a female half-deity. The relationships between Yamī and Yama are the central topic of the dialogue hymn Rgveda 10.10, where Yamī attempts to seduce her twin to incest in order to produce offspring and thus continue the human race. This offer is refused by Yama, who refers to the inappropriateness of incest. Although Yamī and Yama are humans according to the Vedic tradition, their origin from two half-deities – a Gandharva father and an Apsara mother – remains inexplicable: how could a couple of non-human beings (half-deities or demons) give birth to humans? Obviously, the mythological status of the twins should be reconsidered. I argue that at least one of them, Yamī, retains immortality and some other features of the non-human (semi-divine) nature. On the basis of the analysis of the Yama and Yamī hymn and some related Vedic texts, I argue that this assumption may account for certain peculiarities of Yamī’s behaviour – particularly her hypersexuality (which can be qualified as demonic type of behaviour), as opposed to the much more constrained, human type of conduct displayed by Yama. Given the notoriously lustful character of the Gandharvas, an origin from this semi-divine creature may account for Yamī’s hypersexuality. Although the word gandharvá- does not have Indo-European etymology, we can find possible Indo-European parallels. In particular, the Gandharvas are comparable with the Centaurs, which cannot be etymologically related but possibly originate in the same non-Indo-European source. There are some reasons to assume that both words are borrowed from the Kassite language and mythology, which, in turn, may have been related to the language and culture of the Proto-North-Caucasians. Although we do not find exact equivalents of Yamī outside of the Indo-Iranian pantheon, indirect parallels can be found in other Indo-European traditions. The Apsaras (water nymphs) can be compared to a variety of water deities (nymphs) in Greek mythology, such as the Naiads, or to the Slavic rusalki. Publication of English-language versions of the volumes of the yearly Studia Ceranea financed through contract no. 501/1/P-DUN/2017 from the funds of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education devoted to the promotion of scholarship.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sally Chambers; Wouter Schallier;
    Publisher: openjournals.nl
    Country: Belgium

    Europeana's future strategy requires a domain-level aggregator of library content, positioned alongside other domain aggregators for museums, archives and audio-visual collections. To enable this, LIBER (Association of European Research Libraries), CENL (Conference of European National Librarians) and CERL (Consortium of European Research Libraries) have joined forces to submit the ‘Europeana Libraries’ project proposal to the European Commission in the context of the CIP-ICT PSP-2010-4 ‘Digital Libraries’ programme in early Summer 2010. This paper outlines the vision of the ‘Europeana Libraries’ project, which will enable The European Library to become the library-domain aggregator for Europeana.