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  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage
  • Open Access
  • 060101 anthropology
  • Hyper Article en Ligne
  • Hal-Diderot
  • Mémoires en Sciences de l'Information et de la Communication
  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Camille de Becdelievre; Sandrine Thiol; Laure Saligny; Ludovic Granjon; Stéphane Rottier;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; The use of collective graves is one of the main features of the western European Late Neolithic. A single gravesite received the successive deposition of dozens or sometimes hundreds of individuals. While cremations or even full-fired inhumation layers are often found within these funerary deposits, the actual role of fire is still poorly understood. Recently discovered within the important archaeological complex of Passy (Yonne, France), the burned collective grave of La Truie-Pendue provides an outstanding case study to examine the use of fire within Neolithic funerary rites. In this study, we develop a new contextual approach to bone alterations in order to reconstruct the original circumstances of combustion and to examine cultural motivations for the use of fire. Results of spatial statistical analyses indicate that the fire event was the first step of a procedure that sealed the grave, closed the access to the dead and signaled the end of the grave's history. Similar sealing procedures were usual elsewhere during the Late Neolithic. Finally, this study demonstrates the value of using GIS as a tool to optimize taphonomic analyses of widely fragmented and commingled skeletal assemblages.

  • Open Access French
    Authors: 
    Ophélie Rillon;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Communication au Colloque "Lutter dans les Afriques", 26-27 novembre 2009, Paris Sorbonne.; International audience; In the wake of independence in African countries, part of the urban youth of Mali incorporated cosmopolitan models in music and dress, ranging from yéyé to rock-and-roll, as well as Afro-Cuban and Afro-American influences, thereby refusing to submit to the political and cultural norms imposed by the socialist and later military government. Through their bodily appearance, these young people questioned their sexual identity, their gender relationships and their place in society, and in so doing, opposed a different ideal for society to the Malian state.; Au lendemain des indépendances africaines, une partie de la jeunesse urbaine malienne incorpora des modèles musicaux et vestimentaires cosmopolites – allant du yéyé au rock, en passant par des influences afrocubaines et afro-américaines – refusant ainsi de se soumettre aux normes politiques et culturelles imposées par l’État socialiste puis militaire. Au travers de leurs apparences corporelles, ces jeunes réinterrogèrent les identités sexuées, les rapports de genre et la place sociale de la jeunesse, opposant ainsi un autre idéal de société à l’État malien.

  • Open Access French
    Authors: 
    Christian Olive; Daniela Ugolini; Antoine Ratsimba; Céline Jandot; JeanPaul Wiégant;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Die Ausgrabung eines großen Töpferofens 3 km von Béziers bot die Gelegenheit, eine Struktur zu untersuchen, die dem Brennen von pithoi diente. Der Ofen war zwischen dem Ende des 6. Jh. v. Chr. und der ersten Hälfte des 4. Jh. v. Chr. in Betrieb. Es scheint sich um den einzigen Ofen mit dieser Funktion zu handeln, der im westlichen Mittelmeerraum freigelegt wurde. Der Ofen war groß, die schwere Sohle wurde in der Feuerkammer durch eine Vorrichtung aus zwei seitlichen, durch Kragbogen mit einem zentralen Stützmäuerchen verbundene Pfeiler gestützt. Für diesen technisch sehr ausgefeilten Ofen gibt es in Gallien nur eine Parallele in Marseille (in diesem Ofen wurden Amphoren gebrannt). Diese so ungewöhnliche Werkstatt bestätigt die Rolle, die Béziers drei Jahrhunderte lang in der Keramikproduktion gespielt hat, und bietet zudem Gelegenheit auf einen für Flüssigkeiten bestimmten Gefäßtyp zurückzukommen (sowohl in Marseille als auch in Béziers diente er u. a. der Weinbereitung), der sich jedoch ebenfalls für andere Inhalte eignete. Dieser Gefäßtyp wurde in Gallien von den Griechen eingeführt und wurde im westlichen Mittelmeerraum vor allem ab dem Beginn des 4. Jh. v. Chr. geläufig. Entgegen einer weit verbreiteten Vorstellung war die Herstellung dieser großen Gefäße komplex und konnte nur in spezialisierten Werkstätten in der Nähe der Rohstoffvorkommen (Ton, Wasser, Holz, Sand und Kies) stattfinden. Die Ateliers lagen darüber hinaus in der Nähe eines Verkehrsweges, der ebenso der Beförderung der Rohstoffe als auch der Fertigprodukte diente. The excavation of a large pottery kiln at 3 km from Béziers allowed to study a structure destined for firing of pithoi. The kiln functioned between the end of the 6th century B. C. and the first half of the 4th century B. C. ; it seems that it is the only example devoted to this function discovered in the West Mediterranean. It was large and in the fire-chamber the supporting device of the heavy hearth was constituted of two lateral pillars joining a central low wall by corbelled arches. Carefully worked out this kiln can only be compared to another one for amphorae in Gaul discovered in Marseille. So peculiar, it confirms that Béziers was a centre of pottery production during near three centuries. The opportunity is given for a review of this kind of liquid vessel (used for vinification in Massilia as in Béziers) but also suited for other contents. Introduced in Gaul by Greeks, this vase became common in western Mediterranean, mainly from the early 4th century B. C. The production of these large vessels, on the contrary of the generally accepted idea, was complex and made only in specialized workshops established near the spot of raw materials (clay, water, wood, sand and gravel) nearby a road for the carriage of goods and resources. Olive Christian, Ugolini Daniela, Ratsimba Antoine, Jandot Céline, Wiégant JeanPaul. Un four de potier de l’âge du Fer pour la cuisson de pithoi à Béziers (Hérault) : production, diffusion et fonction du pithos dans le Midi (VIe-IVe s. av. J.-C.). In: Gallia, tome 66, fascicule 2, 2009. Archéologie de la France antique. pp. 29-57.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Eric Vandendriessche;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: France

    International audience; This article examines a chapter of the popular book Mathematical Recreations and Essays (5th to 9th editions) written by the Cambridge mathematician Walter William Rouse Ball (1850–1925). This chapter is devoted to “String Figures”, a procedural activity which consists in producing geometrical forms with a loop of string and which is carried out in many traditional societies throughout the world. By analyzing the way in which Ball selected some string figures within ethnographical publications and conceived the structure of this chapter, it appears that he implicitly brought to light the mathematical dimension of this practice.; Cet article examine un chapitre du livre Mathematical Recreations and Essays (5e à 9e éditions) du mathématicien de Cambridge Walter William Rouse Ball (1850–1925). Ce chapitre est consacré aux jeux de ficelle, une activité procédurale pratiquée dans nombre de sociétés traditionnelles, qui consiste à produire une figure géométrique avec une boucle de ficelle. En analysant la façon dont Ball a sélectionné des jeux de ficelle dans des publications ethnographiques et a conçu la structure de ce chapitre, nous montrons que l'auteur justifie implicitement l'inclusion de ce sujet dans son livre de récréations mathématiques, en mettant au jour le caractère mathématique de cette activité.

  • Open Access French
    Authors: 
    Konstantin Pozdniakov;
    Publisher: paris : Société des Océanistes
    Country: France

    International audience; 1) In this paper I demonstrated that there is a number (more than 50) of long fragments that are repeated in different texts in different order. Thus, each text represents a « storage » of mini-texts and also contains some unique segments that cannot be found in other texts. 2) I demonstrated that in France there is an authentic artefact Rongorongo. This is a famous snuff box that was considered a falsification. I managed to discover that by putting together the front and the back part of it we can retrieve the unknown line. This means that during production of the snuff box the original tablet with writiings was cut up in pieces. The combination of signs, engraved there, is also typical for some other texts. This fact is of particular importance for the ascertaining of its authenticity. 3) I demonstrated that a large number of signs in the currently accepted catalog of Barthel are ligatures, that is combinations of signs. 4) By detecting parallel fragments, I defined the direction of writing for some of the texts. 5) I demonstrated that in case of vertical ligatures, first we must read the lower sign and then the upper sign

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Laure Dayet; Floréal Daniel; Pierre Guibert; Pierre-Jean Texier;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    A number of ochre pieces were found from the Middle Stone Age (MSA) in southern Africa, leading to recent debates about the use of this material. The relevant question behind such a debate lies in the role of ochre in early modern human societies. Technical, socio-economical and symbolic aspects might be associated with ochre processing and use. Ochre pieces showing signs of use-wear found on MSA sites are the main witnesses of such activities. That is why our work has focused on the study of ochre pieces, especially on the issue of the raw material selection. The relevance of non-destructive methods in order to determine the mineralogical nature of ochre is discussed here. Scanning electron microscopyenergy- dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were used. Based on careful considerations of the association of different features, such as the elementary composition or the fabric, we showed that under certain conditions surface analyses are very useful to assign samples into mineralogical categories.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Clément Zanolli; Lei Pan; Jean Dumoncel; Ottmar Kullmer; Martin Kundrát; Wu Liu; Roberto Macchiarelli; Lucia Mancini; Friedemann Schrenk; Claudio Tuniz;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Abstract Locality 1, in the Lower Cave of the Zhoukoudian cave complex, China, is one of the most important Middle Pleistocene paleoanthropological and archaeological sites worldwide, with the remains of c. 45 Homo erectus individuals, 98 mammalian taxa, and thousands of lithic tools recovered. Most of the material collected before World War II was lost. However, besides two postcranial elements rediscovered in China in 1951, four human permanent teeth from the ‘Dragon Bone Hill,’ collected by O. Zdansky between 1921 and 1923, were at the time brought to the Paleontological Institute of Uppsala University, Sweden, where they are still stored. This small sample consists of an upper canine (PMU 25719), an upper third molar (PMU M3550), a lower third premolar crown (PMU M3549), and a lower fourth premolar (PMU M3887). Some researchers have noted the existence of morpho-dimensional differences between the Zhoukoudian and the H. erectus dental assemblage from Sangiran, Java. However, compared to its chrono-geographical distribution, the Early to Middle Pleistocene dental material currently forming the Chinese-Indonesian H. erectus hypodigm is quantitatively meager and still poorly characterized for the extent of its endostructural variation. We used micro-focus X-ray tomography techniques of virtual imaging coupled with geometric morphometrics for comparatively investigating the endostructural conformation (tissue proportions, enamel thickness distribution, enamel-dentine junction morphology, pulp cavity shape) of the four specimens stored in Uppsala, all previously reported for their outer features. The results suggest the existence of time-related differences between continental and insular Southeast Asian dental assemblages, the Middle Pleistocene Chinese teeth apparently retaining an inner signature closer to the likely primitive condition represented by the Early Pleistocene remains from Java, while the Indonesian stock evolved toward tooth structural simplification.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kevin Salesse; Elisavet Stamataki; Ioannis Kontopoulos; Georges Verly; Rica Annaert; Mathieu Boudin; Giacomo Capuzzo; Philippe Claeys; Sarah Dalle; Marta Hlad; +7 more
    Countries: Belgium, France, Denmark

    Cremation is a complex mortuary practice, involving a number of activities of the living towards the dead before, during, and after the destruction of the bodily soft tissues by fire. The limiting information concerning these behavioral patterns obtained from the pyre remains and/or cremation deposits prevents the reconstruction of the handling of the corpse during the burning process. This pioneering study tries to determine the initial positioning of the corpse in the pyre and assess whether the deceased was wearing closed leather shoes during cremation through isotopic (δ13C, δ18O) and infrared (ATR-FTIR) analyses of experimentally burnt pig remains, used as a proxy for humans. The results obtained show that both the position of feet on or within the pyre and the presence of footwears may moderately-to-highly influence the oxygen isotope ratios of bone apatite carbonates and the cyanamide content of calcined bone in certain situations. By forming a protective layer, shoes appear to temporarily delay the burning of the underlying pig tissues and to increase the heat-shielding effect of the soft tissues protecting the bone mineral fraction. In such case, bioapatite bone carbonates exchange oxygen with a relatively more 18O-depleted atmosphere (due to the influence of lignin-derived oxygen rather than cellulose-derived oxygen), resulting in more pronounced decrease in the δ18Ocarb values during burning of the shoed feet vs. unshoed feet. The shift observed here was as high as 2.5. A concomitant isotopic effect of the initial location of the feet in the pyres was also observed, resulting in a top-to-bottom decrease difference in the δ18Ocarb values of shoed feet of about 1.4 between each deposition level tested. Finally, the presence of cyanamide (CN/P 0.02) seems to be indicative of closed footwear since the latter creates favorable conditions for its incorporation into bone apatite. info:eu-repo/semantics/published SCOPUS: ar.j

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sylvain Billiard; Alexandra Alvergne;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: France, United Kingdom, France, France, France

    Over the last 40 years or so, there has been an explosion of cultural evolution research in anthropology and archaeology. In each discipline, cultural evolutionists investigate how interactions between individuals translate into group level patterns, with the aim of explaining the diachronic dynamics and diversity of cultural traits. However, while much attention has been given to deterministic processes (e.g. cultural transmission biases), we contend that current evolutionary accounts of cultural change are limited because they do not adopt a systematic stochastic approach (i.e. accounting for the role of chance). First, we show that, in contrast with the intense debates in ecology and population genetics, the importance of stochasticity in evolutionary processes has generated little discussion in the sciences of cultural evolution to date. Second, we speculate on the reasons, both ideological and methodological, why that should be so. Third, we highlight the inadequacy of genetically-inspired stochastic models in the context of cultural evolution modelling, and ask which fundamental stochastic processes might be more relevant to take up. We conclude that the field of cultural evolution would benefit from a stochastic revolution. For that to occur, stochastic models ought to be developed specifically for cultural data and not through a copy-pasting of neutral models from population genetics or ecology.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    James Blinkhorn; Clément Zanolli; Tim Compton; Huw S. Groucutt; Eleanor M. L. Scerri; Lucile Crété; Chris Stringer; Michael D. Petraglia; Simon Blockley;
    Country: France

    Neanderthals occurred widely across north Eurasian landscapes, but between ~ 70 and 50 thousand years ago (ka) they expanded southwards into the Levant, which had previously been inhabited by Homo sapiens. Palaeoanthropological research in the first half of the twentieth century demonstrated alternate occupations of the Levant by Neanderthal and Homo sapiens populations, yet key early findings have largely been overlooked in later studies. Here, we present the results of new examinations of both the fossil and archaeological collections from Shukbah Cave, located in the Palestinian West Bank, presenting new quantitative analyses of a hominin lower first molar and associated stone tool assemblage. The hominin tooth shows clear Neanderthal affinities, making it the southernmost known fossil specimen of this population/species. The associated Middle Palaeolithic stone tool assemblage is dominated by Levallois reduction methods, including the presence of Nubian Levallois points and cores. This is the first direct association between Neanderthals and Nubian Levallois technology, demonstrating that this stone tool technology should not be considered an exclusive marker of Homo sapiens. Results - Non‑metric traits of the EM 3869 specimen. - Crown dimensions of EM 3869. - Enamel‑dentine junction (EDJ) shape of EM 3869. - Root proportions and taurodontism in EM 3869. - The stone tool assemblage. Discussion Methods - NHMUK PA EM 3869 - External morphology. - X‑ray microtomography. - Data processing - 3D lateral crown tissue proportions. - Geometric morphometric analyses. - Volumetric bifurcation index (VBI) of the roots. - Lithic analyses.