Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
33 Research products, page 1 of 4

  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage
  • 2019-2023
  • Other ORP type
  • Norwegian Open Research Archives

10
arrow_drop_down
Relevance
arrow_drop_down
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Zubiaurre, Elena; Bele, Bolette; Simon, Veronique Karine; Reher, Guillermo S.; Rodríguez, Ana Delia; Alonso, Rodrigo; Castiglioni, Benedetta;

    The Faro Convention underlined the importance of educational initiatives related to heritage. This paper focuses on the educational dimension of landscape, as a means to better facilitate its social acceptance and hence its inclusion in planning and management processes. The relation between landscape education and social perception, through a few European examples will be analysed to ascertain whether the principles of the Convention are being complied with effectively. The authors introduce four case studies of heritage-related education carried out in three European countries (Spain, Norway and Italy). These case studies provide the possibility to coherently analyse a wide range of activities and initiatives occurring at various scales and levels: geographic, local and sectoral. In addition, they describe the pedagogical potential of cultural landscapes and cultural heritage, and highlight some of the educational strategies and measures currently used in this field.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ameen, Carly; Feuerborn, Tatiana R.; Brown, Sarah K.; Linderholm, Anna; Hulme-Beaman, Ardern; Lebrasseur, Ophelie; Sinding, Mikkel Holger Strander; Lounsberry, Zachary T.; Lin, Audrey T.; Appelt, Martin; +49 more
    Publisher: the Royal Society

    Domestic dogs have been central to life in the North American Arctic for millennia. The ancestors of the Inuit were the first to introduce the widespread usage of dog sledge transportation technology to the Americas, but whether the Inuit adopted local Palaeo-Inuit dogs or introduced a new dog population to the region remains unknown. To test these hypotheses, we generated mitochondrial DNA and geometric morphometric data of skull and dental elements from a total of 922 North American Arctic dogs and wolves spanning over 4500 years. Our analyses revealed that dogs from Inuit sites dating from 2000 BP possess morphological and genetic signatures that distinguish them from earlier Palaeo-Inuit dogs, and identified a novel mitochondrial clade in eastern Siberia and Alaska. The genetic legacy of these Inuit dogs survives today in modern Arctic sledge dogs despite phenotypic differences between archaeological and modern Arctic dogs. Together, our data reveal that Inuit dogs derive from a secondary pre-contact migration of dogs distinct from Palaeo-Inuit dogs, and probably aided the Inuit expansion across the North American Arctic beginning around 1000 BP.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jafri, Maryam;
    Publisher: Kunsthøgskolen i Oslo
    Country: Norway

    Fotodokumentasjon An inquiry into the limits of using images by and of other people in today’s networked, socially-mediated landscape. The project aims to situate contemporary image culture at the intersection of art, law and ethics. The point of departure is a real life incident in which the artist was accused of violating the privacy of an individual imaged in a video that was on display in her recent exhibition.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Angelstam, Per; Manton, Michael; Yamalynets, Taras; Sørensen, Ole Jakob; Kondrateva (Stepanova), Svetlana V.;
    Publisher: Basel : MDPI AG
    Country: Lithuania

    Regional clear-felling of naturally dynamic boreal forests has left remote forest landscapes in northern Europe with challenges regarding rural development based on wood mining. However, biodiversity conservation with higher levels of ambition than what is possible in regions with a long forest history, and cultural heritage, offer opportunities for developing new value chains that support rural development. We explored the opportunities for pro-active integrated spatial planning based on: (i) landscapes’ natural and cultural heritage values in the transboundary Kovda River catchment in Russia and Finland; (ii) forest canopy loss as a threat; and (iii) private, public and civil sector stakeholders’ views on the use and non-use values at local to international levels. After a 50-year history of wood mining in Russia, the remaining primeval forest and cultural heritage remnants are located along the pre-1940 Finnish-Russian border. Forest canopy loss was higher in Finland (0.42%/year) than in Russia (0.09%/year), and decreased from the south to the north in both countries. The spatial scales of stakeholders’ use of forest landscapes ranged from stand-scale to the entire catchment of Kovda River in Russia and Finland (~2,600,000 ha). We stress the need to develop an integrated landscape approach that includes: (i) forest landscape goods; (ii) other ecosystem services and values found in intact forest landscapes; and (iii) adaptive local and regional forest landscape governance. Transboundary collaboration offers opportunities for effective knowledge production and learning

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    García-Díaz, José Antonio; Colomo-Palacios, Ricardo; Valencia-Garcia, Rafael;
    Publisher: Elsevier

    In general, people are usually more reluctant to follow advice and directions from politicians who do not have their ideology. In extreme cases, people can be heavily biased in favour of a political party at the same time that they are in sharp disagreement with others, which may lead to irrational decision making and can put people’s lives at risk by ignoring certain recommendations from the authorities. Therefore, considering political ideology as a psychographic trait can improve political micro-targeting by helping public authorities and local governments to adopt better communication policies during crises. In this work, we explore the reliability of determining psychographic traits concerning political ideology. Our contribution is twofold. On the one hand, we release the PoliCorpus-2020, a dataset composed by Spanish politicians’ tweets posted in 2020. On the other hand, we conduct two authorship analysis tasks with the aforementioned dataset: an author profiling task to extract demographic and psychographic traits, and an authorship attribution task to determine the author of an anonymous text in the political domain. Both experiments are evaluated with several neural network architectures grounded on explainable linguistic features, statistical features, and state-of-the-art transformers. In addition, we test whether the neural network models can be transferred to detect the political ideology of citizens. Our results indicate that the linguistic features are good indicators for identifying finegrained political affiliation, they boost the performance of neural network models when combined with embedding-based features, and they preserve relevant information when the models are tested with ordinary citizens. Besides, we found that lexical and morphosyntactic features are more effective on author profiling, whereas stylometric features are more effective in authorship attribution.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Barrett, Bonita J; Gawthorpe, Rob; Collier, Richard E.L.I.; Hodgson, David M.; Cullen, Timothy M;
    Publisher: Wiley

    Models that aim to capture the interactions between sediment supply, base level and tectonism recorded in fan delta successions in rift basins have not considered the stratigraphic archive preserved in interfan areas; yet interfan stratigraphy can provide a complementary record to the fan delta axes. The exhumed Early–Middle Pleistocene Kerinitis and Selinous fan deltas, in the hangingwall of the Pyrgaki–Mamoussia (P‐M) Fault, Corinth Rift, Greece, offer an ideal laboratory for the assessment of interfan architecture. Furthermore, using the geometry of adjacent present‐day fan deltas, interfans are classified into three end‐members. The classification is based on their lateral separation, which determines the degree of interfingering of topset, foreset and bottomset deposits. Qualitative (facies, stratal geometries, nature of key surfaces) and quantitative (stratigraphic thickness, bedding dip, palaeocurrents, breakpoint trajectories) data were collected in the field and from unmanned aerial vehicle photogrammetry‐based 3D outcrop models of the exhumed fan delta successions. The ancient Kerinitis–Selinous interfan architectures record: (a) initial westward progradation of the Kerinitis fan delta into the interfan area (Phase 1), (b) subsequent progradation of the Selinous fan delta into the interfan area and asymmetric growth of both fan deltas eastward (Phase 2), (c) stratal interfingering of foresets from both systems (Phase 3), and (d) relative base‐level fall, erosion and reworking of sediments into the interfan area (Phases 4 and 5). The Kerinitis–Selinous interfan evolution is linked to initial net subsidence of the P‐M Fault (Phases 1–3) and subsequent net uplift (Phases 4 and 5) resulting from a northward shift in fault activity. The interfan area provides a more complete stratigraphic record than the proximal axial areas of the fan deltas of the early stages of basin uplift, through higher preservation potential and protracted submergence. Therefore, for the most comprehensive insight into basin evolution, interfan analysis should be undertaken in concert with analysis of the fan delta axes.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    García-Díaz, José Antonio; Colomo-Palacios, Ricardo; Valencia-García, Rafael;
    Publisher: Technical University of Aachen

    Sexism is harmful behaviour that can make women feel worthless promoting self-censorship and gender inequality. In the digital era, misogynists have found in social networks a place in which they can spread their oppressive discourse towards women. Although this particular form of oppressive speech is banned and punished on most social networks, its identification is quite challenging due to the large number of messages posted everyday. Moreover, sexist comments can be unnoticed as condescends or friendly statements which hinders its identification even for humans. With the aim of improving automatic sexist identification on social networks, we participate in EXIST-2021. This shared task involves the identification and categorisation of sexism language on Spanish and English documents compiled from micro-blogging platforms. Specifically, two tasks were proposed, one concerning a binary classification of sexism utterances and another regarding multi-class identification of sexist traits. Our proposal for solving both tasks is grounded on the combination of linguistic features and state-of-the-art transformers by means of ensembles and multi-input neural networks. To address the multi-language problem, we tackle the problem independently by language to put the results together at the end. Our best result was achieved in task 1 with an accuracy of 75.14% and 61.70% for task 2.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Barth, Theodor;
    Publisher: KHiO

    Few would presently disagree that the conditions of our life and work on planet earth is immersive. Yet, can we imagine an existential leap—under these fundamental conditions—that will bring a simultaneous shift to the world and our lives? Based on this question, the present flyer-series queries the expanded self: one not orbital to our ego, but a wider self that includes artefacts and natural occurrences, reflected e.g. in Gregory Bateson’s query into the cybernetics of the expanded mind. In this connection the warehousing of human artefacts and natural occurrences (e.g., seen as resources) operate in a variety of modes reflecting the internal shifts in what e.g. Pierre Bourdieu understood as doxa: featuring opinion and assumption. Instead of querying the relation between opinion/assumption vs. knowledge/critique—according to an established scholarly template—we may attempt a generative analysis of the shifts in opinion, assumption, knowledge and critique as a whole. Thus, the shifts in the warehousing of the entities—artefacts/ occurrences—can be considered, and help us take awareness of the sideways/crabwise motion of change: which may be as much desired as it is difficult to detect. The case-base elaborated on in the set, are from furniture design and archival studies. Furniture and archives always exist alongside: which means that they are in one aspect independent and comparable, in another aspect dependent and functionally supportive. The case-materials are specific: the furniture materials are from Jørund Blikstad’s artistic research in furniture design for his PhD, while the other material hinge on specific insights from discoveries emerging from an ongoing interaction with the National Library. Both interaction-arenas unfolded in the Spring of 2021—as the C19 pandemic foreclosed—and the flyer-set targets a where environmental humanities and STS (science technology studies) are joint: featuring the strategic potential of the flyer-HEX. Essentially an experimental bid on exposition, or what exposition could be if transposed unto theory development. A task which may be as urgent as its occasions are rare. An effort, in league with practice, of a dramaturgical kind: combining the roles of the researcher and the in-house critic.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Yan, Melissa Y.; Gustad, Lise Tuset; Nytrø, Øystein;
    Publisher: Oxford University Press

    Objective To determine the effects of using unstructured clinical text in machine learning (ML) for prediction, early detection, and identification of sepsis. Materials and methods PubMed, Scopus, ACM DL, dblp, and IEEE Xplore databases were searched. Articles utilizing clinical text for ML or natural language processing (NLP) to detect, identify, recognize, diagnose, or predict the onset, development, progress, or prognosis of systemic inflammatory response syndrome, sepsis, severe sepsis, or septic shock were included. Sepsis definition, dataset, types of data, ML models, NLP techniques, and evaluation metrics were extracted. Results The clinical text used in models include narrative notes written by nurses, physicians, and specialists in varying situations. This is often combined with common structured data such as demographics, vital signs, laboratory data, and medications. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) comparison of ML methods showed that utilizing both text and structured data predicts sepsis earlier and more accurately than structured data alone. No meta-analysis was performed because of incomparable measurements among the 9 included studies. Discussion Studies focused on sepsis identification or early detection before onset; no studies used patient histories beyond the current episode of care to predict sepsis. Sepsis definition affects reporting methods, outcomes, and results. Many methods rely on continuous vital sign measurements in intensive care, making them not easily transferable to general ward units. Conclusions Approaches were heterogeneous, but studies showed that utilizing both unstructured text and structured data in ML can improve identification and early detection of sepsis.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Gomez-Baggethun, Erik;

    Except for sleep, humans spend more of their lifetimes on work than on any other activity. Many people take for granted the centrality of work in society, conceiving the prevailing 40 h workweeks in high-income countries as a ‘natural’ configuration of time. However, work and working time have been fiercely contested phenomena and have taken many different forms throughout history as they were reshaped by technological development, social struggle, and changing cultural values. Drawing on insight from history, anthropological research, and time use studies, this paper attempts to broaden the frames harnessing current debates about the future of work. First, we examine evolving conceptions of work in different cultures. Second, we review patterns of working time throughout history, contrasting some widely held assumptions against the background of the long dur´ee. Finally, we present ideas and principles to rethink dominant conceptions about the meaning, purpose, volume, content, distribution, and remuneration of work along ecological economic principles of sustainability and justice. Work time reduction Post-growth Automation Sustainability Utopia History Degrowth

Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
33 Research products, page 1 of 4
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Zubiaurre, Elena; Bele, Bolette; Simon, Veronique Karine; Reher, Guillermo S.; Rodríguez, Ana Delia; Alonso, Rodrigo; Castiglioni, Benedetta;

    The Faro Convention underlined the importance of educational initiatives related to heritage. This paper focuses on the educational dimension of landscape, as a means to better facilitate its social acceptance and hence its inclusion in planning and management processes. The relation between landscape education and social perception, through a few European examples will be analysed to ascertain whether the principles of the Convention are being complied with effectively. The authors introduce four case studies of heritage-related education carried out in three European countries (Spain, Norway and Italy). These case studies provide the possibility to coherently analyse a wide range of activities and initiatives occurring at various scales and levels: geographic, local and sectoral. In addition, they describe the pedagogical potential of cultural landscapes and cultural heritage, and highlight some of the educational strategies and measures currently used in this field.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ameen, Carly; Feuerborn, Tatiana R.; Brown, Sarah K.; Linderholm, Anna; Hulme-Beaman, Ardern; Lebrasseur, Ophelie; Sinding, Mikkel Holger Strander; Lounsberry, Zachary T.; Lin, Audrey T.; Appelt, Martin; +49 more
    Publisher: the Royal Society

    Domestic dogs have been central to life in the North American Arctic for millennia. The ancestors of the Inuit were the first to introduce the widespread usage of dog sledge transportation technology to the Americas, but whether the Inuit adopted local Palaeo-Inuit dogs or introduced a new dog population to the region remains unknown. To test these hypotheses, we generated mitochondrial DNA and geometric morphometric data of skull and dental elements from a total of 922 North American Arctic dogs and wolves spanning over 4500 years. Our analyses revealed that dogs from Inuit sites dating from 2000 BP possess morphological and genetic signatures that distinguish them from earlier Palaeo-Inuit dogs, and identified a novel mitochondrial clade in eastern Siberia and Alaska. The genetic legacy of these Inuit dogs survives today in modern Arctic sledge dogs despite phenotypic differences between archaeological and modern Arctic dogs. Together, our data reveal that Inuit dogs derive from a secondary pre-contact migration of dogs distinct from Palaeo-Inuit dogs, and probably aided the Inuit expansion across the North American Arctic beginning around 1000 BP.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jafri, Maryam;
    Publisher: Kunsthøgskolen i Oslo
    Country: Norway

    Fotodokumentasjon An inquiry into the limits of using images by and of other people in today’s networked, socially-mediated landscape. The project aims to situate contemporary image culture at the intersection of art, law and ethics. The point of departure is a real life incident in which the artist was accused of violating the privacy of an individual imaged in a video that was on display in her recent exhibition.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Angelstam, Per; Manton, Michael; Yamalynets, Taras; Sørensen, Ole Jakob; Kondrateva (Stepanova), Svetlana V.;
    Publisher: Basel : MDPI AG
    Country: Lithuania

    Regional clear-felling of naturally dynamic boreal forests has left remote forest landscapes in northern Europe with challenges regarding rural development based on wood mining. However, biodiversity conservation with higher levels of ambition than what is possible in regions with a long forest history, and cultural heritage, offer opportunities for developing new value chains that support rural development. We explored the opportunities for pro-active integrated spatial planning based on: (i) landscapes’ natural and cultural heritage values in the transboundary Kovda River catchment in Russia and Finland; (ii) forest canopy loss as a threat; and (iii) private, public and civil sector stakeholders’ views on the use and non-use values at local to international levels. After a 50-year history of wood mining in Russia, the remaining primeval forest and cultural heritage remnants are located along the pre-1940 Finnish-Russian border. Forest canopy loss was higher in Finland (0.42%/year) than in Russia (0.09%/year), and decreased from the south to the north in both countries. The spatial scales of stakeholders’ use of forest landscapes ranged from stand-scale to the entire catchment of Kovda River in Russia and Finland (~2,600,000 ha). We stress the need to develop an integrated landscape approach that includes: (i) forest landscape goods; (ii) other ecosystem services and values found in intact forest landscapes; and (iii) adaptive local and regional forest landscape governance. Transboundary collaboration offers opportunities for effective knowledge production and learning

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    García-Díaz, José Antonio; Colomo-Palacios, Ricardo; Valencia-Garcia, Rafael;
    Publisher: Elsevier

    In general, people are usually more reluctant to follow advice and directions from politicians who do not have their ideology. In extreme cases, people can be heavily biased in favour of a political party at the same time that they are in sharp disagreement with others, which may lead to irrational decision making and can put people’s lives at risk by ignoring certain recommendations from the authorities. Therefore, considering political ideology as a psychographic trait can improve political micro-targeting by helping public authorities and local governments to adopt better communication policies during crises. In this work, we explore the reliability of determining psychographic traits concerning political ideology. Our contribution is twofold. On the one hand, we release the PoliCorpus-2020, a dataset composed by Spanish politicians’ tweets posted in 2020. On the other hand, we conduct two authorship analysis tasks with the aforementioned dataset: an author profiling task to extract demographic and psychographic traits, and an authorship attribution task to determine the author of an anonymous text in the political domain. Both experiments are evaluated with several neural network architectures grounded on explainable linguistic features, statistical features, and state-of-the-art transformers. In addition, we test whether the neural network models can be transferred to detect the political ideology of citizens. Our results indicate that the linguistic features are good indicators for identifying finegrained political affiliation, they boost the performance of neural network models when combined with embedding-based features, and they preserve relevant information when the models are tested with ordinary citizens. Besides, we found that lexical and morphosyntactic features are more effective on author profiling, whereas stylometric features are more effective in authorship attribution.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Barrett, Bonita J; Gawthorpe, Rob; Collier, Richard E.L.I.; Hodgson, David M.; Cullen, Timothy M;
    Publisher: Wiley

    Models that aim to capture the interactions between sediment supply, base level and tectonism recorded in fan delta successions in rift basins have not considered the stratigraphic archive preserved in interfan areas; yet interfan stratigraphy can provide a complementary record to the fan delta axes. The exhumed Early–Middle Pleistocene Kerinitis and Selinous fan deltas, in the hangingwall of the Pyrgaki–Mamoussia (P‐M) Fault, Corinth Rift, Greece, offer an ideal laboratory for the assessment of interfan architecture. Furthermore, using the geometry of adjacent present‐day fan deltas, interfans are classified into three end‐members. The classification is based on their lateral separation, which determines the degree of interfingering of topset, foreset and bottomset deposits. Qualitative (facies, stratal geometries, nature of key surfaces) and quantitative (stratigraphic thickness, bedding dip, palaeocurrents, breakpoint trajectories) data were collected in the field and from unmanned aerial vehicle photogrammetry‐based 3D outcrop models of the exhumed fan delta successions. The ancient Kerinitis–Selinous interfan architectures record: (a) initial westward progradation of the Kerinitis fan delta into the interfan area (Phase 1), (b) subsequent progradation of the Selinous fan delta into the interfan area and asymmetric growth of both fan deltas eastward (Phase 2), (c) stratal interfingering of foresets from both systems (Phase 3), and (d) relative base‐level fall, erosion and reworking of sediments into the interfan area (Phases 4 and 5). The Kerinitis–Selinous interfan evolution is linked to initial net subsidence of the P‐M Fault (Phases 1–3) and subsequent net uplift (Phases 4 and 5) resulting from a northward shift in fault activity. The interfan area provides a more complete stratigraphic record than the proximal axial areas of the fan deltas of the early stages of basin uplift, through higher preservation potential and protracted submergence. Therefore, for the most comprehensive insight into basin evolution, interfan analysis should be undertaken in concert with analysis of the fan delta axes.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    García-Díaz, José Antonio; Colomo-Palacios, Ricardo; Valencia-García, Rafael;
    Publisher: Technical University of Aachen

    Sexism is harmful behaviour that can make women feel worthless promoting self-censorship and gender inequality. In the digital era, misogynists have found in social networks a place in which they can spread their oppressive discourse towards women. Although this particular form of oppressive speech is banned and punished on most social networks, its identification is quite challenging due to the large number of messages posted everyday. Moreover, sexist comments can be unnoticed as condescends or friendly statements which hinders its identification even for humans. With the aim of improving automatic sexist identification on social networks, we participate in EXIST-2021. This shared task involves the identification and categorisation of sexism language on Spanish and English documents compiled from micro-blogging platforms. Specifically, two tasks were proposed, one concerning a binary classification of sexism utterances and another regarding multi-class identification of sexist traits. Our proposal for solving both tasks is grounded on the combination of linguistic features and state-of-the-art transformers by means of ensembles and multi-input neural networks. To address the multi-language problem, we tackle the problem independently by language to put the results together at the end. Our best result was achieved in task 1 with an accuracy of 75.14% and 61.70% for task 2.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Barth, Theodor;
    Publisher: KHiO

    Few would presently disagree that the conditions of our life and work on planet earth is immersive. Yet, can we imagine an existential leap—under these fundamental conditions—that will bring a simultaneous shift to the world and our lives? Based on this question, the present flyer-series queries the expanded self: one not orbital to our ego, but a wider self that includes artefacts and natural occurrences, reflected e.g. in Gregory Bateson’s query into the cybernetics of the expanded mind. In this connection the warehousing of human artefacts and natural occurrences (e.g., seen as resources) operate in a variety of modes reflecting the internal shifts in what e.g. Pierre Bourdieu understood as doxa: featuring opinion and assumption. Instead of querying the relation between opinion/assumption vs. knowledge/critique—according to an established scholarly template—we may attempt a generative analysis of the shifts in opinion, assumption, knowledge and critique as a whole. Thus, the shifts in the warehousing of the entities—artefacts/ occurrences—can be considered, and help us take awareness of the sideways/crabwise motion of change: which may be as much desired as it is difficult to detect. The case-base elaborated on in the set, are from furniture design and archival studies. Furniture and archives always exist alongside: which means that they are in one aspect independent and comparable, in another aspect dependent and functionally supportive. The case-materials are specific: the furniture materials are from Jørund Blikstad’s artistic research in furniture design for his PhD, while the other material hinge on specific insights from discoveries emerging from an ongoing interaction with the National Library. Both interaction-arenas unfolded in the Spring of 2021—as the C19 pandemic foreclosed—and the flyer-set targets a where environmental humanities and STS (science technology studies) are joint: featuring the strategic potential of the flyer-HEX. Essentially an experimental bid on exposition, or what exposition could be if transposed unto theory development. A task which may be as urgent as its occasions are rare. An effort, in league with practice, of a dramaturgical kind: combining the roles of the researcher and the in-house critic.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Yan, Melissa Y.; Gustad, Lise Tuset; Nytrø, Øystein;
    Publisher: Oxford University Press

    Objective To determine the effects of using unstructured clinical text in machine learning (ML) for prediction, early detection, and identification of sepsis. Materials and methods PubMed, Scopus, ACM DL, dblp, and IEEE Xplore databases were searched. Articles utilizing clinical text for ML or natural language processing (NLP) to detect, identify, recognize, diagnose, or predict the onset, development, progress, or prognosis of systemic inflammatory response syndrome, sepsis, severe sepsis, or septic shock were included. Sepsis definition, dataset, types of data, ML models, NLP techniques, and evaluation metrics were extracted. Results The clinical text used in models include narrative notes written by nurses, physicians, and specialists in varying situations. This is often combined with common structured data such as demographics, vital signs, laboratory data, and medications. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) comparison of ML methods showed that utilizing both text and structured data predicts sepsis earlier and more accurately than structured data alone. No meta-analysis was performed because of incomparable measurements among the 9 included studies. Discussion Studies focused on sepsis identification or early detection before onset; no studies used patient histories beyond the current episode of care to predict sepsis. Sepsis definition affects reporting methods, outcomes, and results. Many methods rely on continuous vital sign measurements in intensive care, making them not easily transferable to general ward units. Conclusions Approaches were heterogeneous, but studies showed that utilizing both unstructured text and structured data in ML can improve identification and early detection of sepsis.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Gomez-Baggethun, Erik;

    Except for sleep, humans spend more of their lifetimes on work than on any other activity. Many people take for granted the centrality of work in society, conceiving the prevailing 40 h workweeks in high-income countries as a ‘natural’ configuration of time. However, work and working time have been fiercely contested phenomena and have taken many different forms throughout history as they were reshaped by technological development, social struggle, and changing cultural values. Drawing on insight from history, anthropological research, and time use studies, this paper attempts to broaden the frames harnessing current debates about the future of work. First, we examine evolving conceptions of work in different cultures. Second, we review patterns of working time throughout history, contrasting some widely held assumptions against the background of the long dur´ee. Finally, we present ideas and principles to rethink dominant conceptions about the meaning, purpose, volume, content, distribution, and remuneration of work along ecological economic principles of sustainability and justice. Work time reduction Post-growth Automation Sustainability Utopia History Degrowth