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293 Research products, page 1 of 30

  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage
  • Article
  • 16. Peace & justice
  • 15. Life on land
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  • Publication . Article . 2015
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Michael A. Peters; James Reveley;
    Publisher: SAGE Publications

    Our article relocates the debate about creative labour to the terrain of peer-to-peer interneting as the paradigmatic form of nonmarket – social – production. From Yann Moulier Boutang we take the point that creative labour is immaterial; it is expressed through people connected by the internet. Drawing on two social systems thinkers, Francis Heylighen and Wolfgang Hofkirchner, we transpose this connectedness up to a conception of creative labour as a supra-individual collective intelligence. This intelligence, we argue, is one of the internet’s emergent properties. We then present a model of internet development that flags the potential of digitally-evoked collective intelligence to facilitate what the Marxist philosopher George Caffentzis calls ‘postcapitalist commoning’. Yoking together systems theorizing about the internet and socialist envisioning of social transformation, we identify two sets of internet tools for coordination that can assist with the convivial reconstruction of society along the lines of peer-based production.

  • Publication . Article . 2021
    Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Andrea Carson; Andrew Gibbons; Justin Bonest Phillips;
    Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing Company

    Abstract Since the 2016 US federal election, political actors have weaponized online fake news as a means of gaining electoral advantage (Egelhofer and Lecheler 2019). To advance understandings of the actors and methods involved in perpetuating fake news, this article focuses on an Australian story that circulated on and offline through different discourses during the 2019 federal election. We use content analyses of 100,000 media articles and eight million Facebook posts to trace false claims that the centre-left Labor party would introduce an inheritance tax dubbed a ‘death tax’ if it won office. To understand this evolution of ‘death tax’ discourse on and offline – and its weaponization by various actors – we draw from existing theorems of agenda setting, backfire effects, and propose our own recursion theory.

  • Authors: 
    Andrew J. Sepie;
    Publisher: Informa UK Limited

    ABSTRACTNew Zealand started as its own counter-culture, and its history of state-controlled broadcasting, conservative Britishness, youth delinquency and drugs meant that “the” counterculture of the 1960s played out very differently to elsewhere. Psychedelic rock fared the worst of all, and the reasons for this are manifold. Numerous artists experimented with psychedelia, but the music of the counterculture became caught in a period of accelerated change. Despite a late showing of music festivals and hippiedom, many artists had already moved away achieving success overseas, and the 80s seemed to arrive in New Zealand before the 60s had entirely run its course.

  • Authors: 
    Fiona McCormack;
    Publisher: Informa UK Limited

    This is a richly detailed study of the struggle Māori underwent to regain their ancestral fishing rights. To paraphrase Archie Taiaroa, reflecting on his experience of this endeavour, it is a chron...

  • Publication . Article . 2015
    Authors: 
    Will Sweetman;
    Publisher: Brill

    The historiography of the entanglement of mission and empire in India has often taken the inclusion of the so-called “pious clause” in the East India Company’s 1813 charter to mark the end of a ban on missions in Company territories, and the beginning of a period of co-operation between church and company. This neglects the importance in this debate of the mission founded by German Lutherans in the Danish settlement of Tranquebar in south India in 1706. The mission received direct patronage from the Company for almost a full century before 1813, and was invoked by both sides in the debate over the pious clause. A work published anonymously in 1812, purporting to be a new translation of dialogues between the first missionaries in Tranquebar and their Hindu and Muslim interlocutors, is shown here to be a skilful and savage satire on the dialogues published by the first missionaries.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Peter Bellwood;
    Publisher: Cambridge University Press (CUP)

    The purpose of this paper is to give an account of the prehistoric fortifications (pa) of New Zealand, firstly by describing the cultural background as it is reconstructed by ethnographers for the period immediately preceding European contact, and then by presenting new information from two excavations which have yielded valuable results on the form and function of these sites.The New Zealand fortifications, which are mainly of the earthwork type with timber superstructures, have long been on record, and were first described by James Cook for the year 1769 (the initial discovery of New Zealand, by Tasman in 1642, was not accompanied by a landing). Recent surveys indicate that there are about 4,000 pa in New Zealand, most distributed in coastal situations in the North Island and northern South Island, and this distribution correlates with that of prehistoric populations living by simple horticulture and the exploitation of marine and forest resources. In the southerly parts of the South Island, where climate was not favourable for horticulture and where population density was slight, there appear to be no fully prehistoric fortifications. From 1769 onwards increasing European contact introduced pigs, the white potato, muskets, metals and other items which, in combination, gave rise to radically different technological and economic patterns. This paper is concerned solely with prehistoric Maori culture.Morphologically, New Zealand pa resemble the Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age earthwork hillforts of north-western Europe, and many, by their size and strength, show clear evidence of engineering skill and the ability to organize large labour forces.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Rachael Bell;
    Publisher: SAGE Publications

    The battle for Crete, 20 May to 1 June 1941, was an engagement in which New Zealand forces played a key role in the defence, and ultimately the loss, of the island. This article traces the methodology of the New Zealand War History Branch in determining responsibility for the withdrawal from Maleme airfield at the western end of the island and the subsequent impact of the official history’s conclusions on New Zealand’s view of this battle.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Donna Yates; Simon Mackenzie; Emiline Smith;
    Countries: Netherlands, Netherlands, United Kingdom
    Project: EC | GTICO (283873), EC | GTICO (283873)

    Most analysis of the international flows of the illicit art market has described a global situation in which a postcolonial legacy of acquisition and collection exploits cultural heritage by pulling it westwards towards major international trade nodes in the USA and Europe. As the locus of consumptive global economic power shifts, however, these traditional flows are pulled in other directions: notably for the present commentary, towards and within Asia.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2015
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Katja Hanke; James H. Liu; Chris G. Sibley; Darío Páez; Stanley O. Gaines; Gail Moloney; Chan-Hoong Leong; Wolfgang Wagner; Laurent Licata; Olivier Klein; +6 more
    Publisher: Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Countries: Portugal, Spain, Portugal, Spain, United Kingdom, Belgium, Belgium

    Emergent properties of global political culture were examined using data from the World History Survey involving 6,699 university students in 35 societies evaluating 40 figures from world history. Multi-dimensional scaling and factor analysis techniques found only limited forms of universality in evaluations across Western, Catholic/Orthodox, Muslim, and Asian country clusters. The highest consensus across cultures involved scientific innovators, with Einstein having the highest evaluation overall. Peaceful humanitarians like Mother Theresa and Gandhi followed. There was much less cross-cultural consistency in the evaluation of negative figures, led by Hitler, Osama bin Laden, and Saddam Hussein. Latent class analysis was used to identify four global representational profiles: Secular and Religious Idealists were overwhelmingly prevalent in Christian societies, and Political Realists were common in Muslim and Asian societies. An argument is made for understanding global political culture as dialogue with a historical trajectory that resists unification. info:eu-repo/semantics/published SCOPUS: ar.j

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Chris Wilson;
    Publisher: Cambridge University Press (CUP)

    Violence and vengeance: Religious conflict and its aftermath in eastern Indonesia By CHRISTOPHER R. DUNCAN Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2013. Pp. 240. Maps, Photographs, Appendix, Notes, References, Index. doi: 10.1017/S0022463414000186 Violence and vengeance joins a large literature on the violent communal conflicts which exploded in Indonesia fifteen years ago. Christopher R. Duncan aims to bring to the fore the voices and understandings of the ordinary people involved. He asserts that for most, the defining feature of the violence was religious difference. Having written a book on the same conflict, this is a difficult review for me to write. I will therefore focus on the analytical approach taken by Duncan, only referring to specifics on which we disagree when necessary to illustrate my concerns. Some aspects of Duncan's book make it a welcome addition to the scholarship on North Maluku and conflict in Indonesia. Not only is his study based on extensive fieldwork, something too often missing in studies of conflict, but this occurred before, during and after the fighting, giving him an almost unique perspective. Scholars will find his discussion of the post-conflict era useful as this period has largely been missing from the literature. The book is well written despite regular jarring spelling errors ('casual' factor, p. 172; 'affect' of religious framing, p. 173; 'tenants' of Islam, p. 166) although some were amusing ('marital' prowess, p. 34). More vexingly, large sections discuss information that has already been published but are unreferenced. Duncan begins by claiming that most existing studies of the conflicts in North Maluku and elsewhere in that era are undermined by their quest for 'causation and chronology'. They are preoccupied with 'grand narratives that discuss timelines, causal mechanisms, and the roles of political elites and their parties' (p. 7). These studies are 'based on media reports and interviews with regional and national elites' (p. 8) and 'omit the stories and voices of those individuals most affected' (p. 7). He eschews 'causal analysis' of why things happened and who was to blame, and is more concerned with 'understanding people's conceptions and experiences of what they "know" happened' (p. 10). This is the first of at least two serious straw men erected in the book. In the studies he critiques, causal analysis is based upon how people perceived their surroundings, evaluated their interests and weighed their options. The scholarship of Jamie Davidson (From rebellion to riots: Collective violence on Indonesian Borneo, 2008), Dave McRae (A few poorly organized men: Interreligious violence in Poso, Indonesia, 2013), Gerry van Klinken (Communal violence and democratization in Indonesia: Small town wars, 2007) and others is based on extensive ethnographic work. My own analysis of North Maluku (Ethno-religious violence in Indonesia: From soil to God, 2008) was based on several hundred interviews, most respondents far removed from the elite. The fact that these studies also analyse the interests and activities of those in positions of power is hardly a weakness. Many crucial questions in conflict study require examining the role of both elite and non-elite actors, including: When and why will elites attempt to mobilise violence? When will their constituents respond? Who is to blame? How can it be prevented? Duncan denies that he is avoiding the question of human agency, yet the book is void of the names of the influential people who organised the violence. Aside from handicapping readers' understanding, this raises issues of accountability and justice. Many North Malukans hold particular people in power responsible for the violence and their motivations. Not giving voice to these 'understandings' held by the people involved is a failing Duncan accuses of others. Indeed, Duncan is inconsistent in his use of the understandings of those affected. …