International audience; The use of collective graves is one of the main features of the western European Late Neolithic. A single gravesite received the successive deposition of dozens or sometimes hundreds of individuals. While cremations or even full-fired inhumation layers are often found within these funerary deposits, the actual role of fire is still poorly understood. Recently discovered within the important archaeological complex of Passy (Yonne, France), the burned collective grave of La Truie-Pendue provides an outstanding case study to examine the use of fire within Neolithic funerary rites. In this study, we develop a new contextual approach to bone alterations in order to reconstruct the original circumstances of combustion and to examine cultural motivations for the use of fire. Results of spatial statistical analyses indicate that the fire event was the first step of a procedure that sealed the grave, closed the access to the dead and signaled the end of the grave's history. Similar sealing procedures were usual elsewhere during the Late Neolithic. Finally, this study demonstrates the value of using GIS as a tool to optimize taphonomic analyses of widely fragmented and commingled skeletal assemblages.
Communication au Colloque "Lutter dans les Afriques", 26-27 novembre 2009, Paris Sorbonne.; International audience; In the wake of independence in African countries, part of the urban youth of Mali incorporated cosmopolitan models in music and dress, ranging from yéyé to rock-and-roll, as well as Afro-Cuban and Afro-American influences, thereby refusing to submit to the political and cultural norms imposed by the socialist and later military government. Through their bodily appearance, these young people questioned their sexual identity, their gender relationships and their place in society, and in so doing, opposed a different ideal for society to the Malian state.; Au lendemain des indépendances africaines, une partie de la jeunesse urbaine malienne incorpora des modèles musicaux et vestimentaires cosmopolites – allant du yéyé au rock, en passant par des influences afrocubaines et afro-américaines – refusant ainsi de se soumettre aux normes politiques et culturelles imposées par l’État socialiste puis militaire. Au travers de leurs apparences corporelles, ces jeunes réinterrogèrent les identités sexuées, les rapports de genre et la place sociale de la jeunesse, opposant ainsi un autre idéal de société à l’État malien.
ABSTRACTDuring the second half of the eighteenth century the Spanish guitar reached a level of popularity in France not equalled elsewhere. Among the various composers who contributed to the vogue for the instrument in this country, sources of the period refer to a certain Mr Vidal, a guitarist of Spanish origins who was regarded as one of the most important masters of the guitar in Europe. Despite multiple references to his musical activities no extensive study has yet been made, which leaves this figure only partially studied. In order to address this lacuna, this article reconstructs the life of this guitarist, placing his music in the environment in which he lived in order to obtain a clearer picture of the situation of the guitar and the role of Vidal as a composer, guitarist, publisher and teacher.
Die Ausgrabung eines großen Töpferofens 3 km von Béziers bot die Gelegenheit, eine Struktur zu untersuchen, die dem Brennen von pithoi diente. Der Ofen war zwischen dem Ende des 6. Jh. v. Chr. und der ersten Hälfte des 4. Jh. v. Chr. in Betrieb. Es scheint sich um den einzigen Ofen mit dieser Funktion zu handeln, der im westlichen Mittelmeerraum freigelegt wurde. Der Ofen war groß, die schwere Sohle wurde in der Feuerkammer durch eine Vorrichtung aus zwei seitlichen, durch Kragbogen mit einem zentralen Stützmäuerchen verbundene Pfeiler gestützt. Für diesen technisch sehr ausgefeilten Ofen gibt es in Gallien nur eine Parallele in Marseille (in diesem Ofen wurden Amphoren gebrannt). Diese so ungewöhnliche Werkstatt bestätigt die Rolle, die Béziers drei Jahrhunderte lang in der Keramikproduktion gespielt hat, und bietet zudem Gelegenheit auf einen für Flüssigkeiten bestimmten Gefäßtyp zurückzukommen (sowohl in Marseille als auch in Béziers diente er u. a. der Weinbereitung), der sich jedoch ebenfalls für andere Inhalte eignete. Dieser Gefäßtyp wurde in Gallien von den Griechen eingeführt und wurde im westlichen Mittelmeerraum vor allem ab dem Beginn des 4. Jh. v. Chr. geläufig. Entgegen einer weit verbreiteten Vorstellung war die Herstellung dieser großen Gefäße komplex und konnte nur in spezialisierten Werkstätten in der Nähe der Rohstoffvorkommen (Ton, Wasser, Holz, Sand und Kies) stattfinden. Die Ateliers lagen darüber hinaus in der Nähe eines Verkehrsweges, der ebenso der Beförderung der Rohstoffe als auch der Fertigprodukte diente. The excavation of a large pottery kiln at 3 km from Béziers allowed to study a structure destined for firing of pithoi. The kiln functioned between the end of the 6th century B. C. and the first half of the 4th century B. C. ; it seems that it is the only example devoted to this function discovered in the West Mediterranean. It was large and in the fire-chamber the supporting device of the heavy hearth was constituted of two lateral pillars joining a central low wall by corbelled arches. Carefully worked out this kiln can only be compared to another one for amphorae in Gaul discovered in Marseille. So peculiar, it confirms that Béziers was a centre of pottery production during near three centuries. The opportunity is given for a review of this kind of liquid vessel (used for vinification in Massilia as in Béziers) but also suited for other contents. Introduced in Gaul by Greeks, this vase became common in western Mediterranean, mainly from the early 4th century B. C. The production of these large vessels, on the contrary of the generally accepted idea, was complex and made only in specialized workshops established near the spot of raw materials (clay, water, wood, sand and gravel) nearby a road for the carriage of goods and resources. Olive Christian, Ugolini Daniela, Ratsimba Antoine, Jandot Céline, Wiégant JeanPaul. Un four de potier de l’âge du Fer pour la cuisson de pithoi à Béziers (Hérault) : production, diffusion et fonction du pithos dans le Midi (VIe-IVe s. av. J.-C.). In: Gallia, tome 66, fascicule 2, 2009. Archéologie de la France antique. pp. 29-57.
International audience; This article examines a chapter of the popular book Mathematical Recreations and Essays (5th to 9th editions) written by the Cambridge mathematician Walter William Rouse Ball (1850–1925). This chapter is devoted to “String Figures”, a procedural activity which consists in producing geometrical forms with a loop of string and which is carried out in many traditional societies throughout the world. By analyzing the way in which Ball selected some string figures within ethnographical publications and conceived the structure of this chapter, it appears that he implicitly brought to light the mathematical dimension of this practice.; Cet article examine un chapitre du livre Mathematical Recreations and Essays (5e à 9e éditions) du mathématicien de Cambridge Walter William Rouse Ball (1850–1925). Ce chapitre est consacré aux jeux de ficelle, une activité procédurale pratiquée dans nombre de sociétés traditionnelles, qui consiste à produire une figure géométrique avec une boucle de ficelle. En analysant la façon dont Ball a sélectionné des jeux de ficelle dans des publications ethnographiques et a conçu la structure de ce chapitre, nous montrons que l'auteur justifie implicitement l'inclusion de ce sujet dans son livre de récréations mathématiques, en mettant au jour le caractère mathématique de cette activité.
International audience; 1) In this paper I demonstrated that there is a number (more than 50) of long fragments that are repeated in different texts in different order. Thus, each text represents a « storage » of mini-texts and also contains some unique segments that cannot be found in other texts. 2) I demonstrated that in France there is an authentic artefact Rongorongo. This is a famous snuff box that was considered a falsification. I managed to discover that by putting together the front and the back part of it we can retrieve the unknown line. This means that during production of the snuff box the original tablet with writiings was cut up in pieces. The combination of signs, engraved there, is also typical for some other texts. This fact is of particular importance for the ascertaining of its authenticity. 3) I demonstrated that a large number of signs in the currently accepted catalog of Barthel are ligatures, that is combinations of signs. 4) By detecting parallel fragments, I defined the direction of writing for some of the texts. 5) I demonstrated that in case of vertical ligatures, first we must read the lower sign and then the upper sign
International audience; In this paper we present the results of surveys carried out in February 2016 alonga palaeo-drainage system near the village of Bisyah. We report first on the geologicalprospection, which was our main goal, and then present our discovery ofthe only known localities in north Oman of large Kombewa flake production(>10 cm up to 20 cm). Among the scatter of artefacts, we found cores and largeKombewa flakes with two opposed bulbs of percussion, a technology that had notbeen known in this region until now. In spite of the local features, the typo-technologicaltraits of the artefacts suggest that at least part of them resemble in someway the Acheulean techno-complex, but there are still many questions remainingon the age of these artefacts.
A number of ochre pieces were found from the Middle Stone Age (MSA) in southern Africa, leading to recent debates about the use of this material. The relevant question behind such a debate lies in the role of ochre in early modern human societies. Technical, socio-economical and symbolic aspects might be associated with ochre processing and use. Ochre pieces showing signs of use-wear found on MSA sites are the main witnesses of such activities. That is why our work has focused on the study of ochre pieces, especially on the issue of the raw material selection. The relevance of non-destructive methods in order to determine the mineralogical nature of ochre is discussed here. Scanning electron microscopyenergy- dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were used. Based on careful considerations of the association of different features, such as the elementary composition or the fabric, we showed that under certain conditions surface analyses are very useful to assign samples into mineralogical categories.
International audience; The emergence of the Upper Paleolithic is traditionally envisioned in terms of a clear rupture with the Middle Paleolithic. From this perspective, the Aurignacian is interpreted as “THE” culture that would realize the systematization of numerous innovations and become the instrument of victory of Modern Humans over Neandertal populations. In this paper, I review current definitions of the early stages of the European Aurignacian and attempt to reformulate them in evolutionary terms. I hypothesize that one of the driving forces of the technological evolution of human groups between 45,000 and 30,000 BP could have been the search for technical solutions for the arming of projectiles. A greater temporal depth and a relative arrhythmia in the development of the constituent elements of the Upper Paleolithic are thus emphasized. The chronological and technological distinction of at least two major traditions—the Protoaurignacian and the Early Aurignacian—is considered, leading me to propose substantial modifications to the classic evolutionary models for the transition of the Middle to the Upper Paleolithic.