Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Subject
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
The following results are related to Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
20 Research products (1 rule applied)

  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage
  • Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians

10
arrow_drop_down
Relevance
arrow_drop_down
  • Authors: Malcolm Thurlby;

    In his article on "Hereford Cathedral" published in the Archaeological Journal in 1877, Sir George Gilbert Scott suggested that the Romanesque presbytery was originally covered with a high groin vault on the basis of the suitability of the broad pilasters on the piers for supporting transverse arches of such a vault. While Scott's case for a high vault has been generally accepted, it has not been seriously tested through a detailed examination of the fabric. This note presents new evidence in the masonry above the eastern crossing arch in support of a Romanesque high vault, considers the manner of its construction in relation to other vaults in the West Country School of Romanesque architecture, and examines the case for its being of groined or ribbed design.

    addClaim

    This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

    You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.
    3
    citations3
    popularityAverage
    influenceAverage
    impulseAverage
    BIP!Powered by BIP!
    more_vert
      addClaim

      This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

      You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.
  • Authors: Robert Mark;
    addClaim

    This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

    You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.
    0
    citations0
    popularityAverage
    influenceAverage
    impulseAverage
    BIP!Powered by BIP!
    more_vert
      addClaim

      This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

      You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.
  • Authors: Jonathan Lane;
    addClaim

    This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

    You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.
    3
    citations3
    popularityAverage
    influenceAverage
    impulseAverage
    BIP!Powered by BIP!
    more_vert
      addClaim

      This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

      You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.
  • Authors: Alexander Badawy;

    IT needs no emphasis that symbolism played a predominant role in the religious and funerary architecture of all peoples in antiquity, and still does today. However, symbolic elements of architecture belong to an advanced stage in the development of representation. A much more primary stage is the one where the actual deity is represented architecturally as a structure formed according to his shape. This shape could be conceptual to suggest cosmic elements; for instance, the world itself as in the stupa of India, and the stretch of the horizon where the sun rises between two mountains as in the pylon of Egypt. It could also be simply realistic when it imitates the shape of an animal by which a deity is represented. Such a zoomorphic architecture may be exemplified in the so-called shrine of Anubis in Egypt. Drawings from the Archaic Period in Egypt (2800 B.C.) represent an edicule, probably religious or funerary, characterized by an irregular upper outline (figs. 1,2,3). Structurally it can be described as having an irregular vault with

    addClaim

    This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

    You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.
    0
    citations0
    popularityAverage
    influenceAverage
    impulseAverage
    BIP!Powered by BIP!
    more_vert
      addClaim

      This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

      You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.
  • Authors: Paul M. Laporte;

    MEDIEVAL church building developed as a result of a specific combination of technical knowledge, ritual requirements, and sociological conditions. The consecutive changes involved in this development seem to have transformed the prevalent habits of perceiving space in a specifically patterned form, consequently influencing the development of painting in a most profound manner. The early Romanesque church is predominantly an abbey church in a rural area. It was built mainly for the performance of religious services by the clergy, with little concern for a large congregation. Since an important part of the ritual is of a processional nature, there is a strong emphasis on the longitudinal axis of the nave leading toward the high altar. A correlative axis is introduced by the transept, distinguishing the processional character of the Christian church from that of the Egyptian temple. Whether or not the idea of the nave-transept configuration is derived from the early desire to give the plan of the church the symbolic shape of the cross, the lines of the Roman cross have become a basic means of organizing space in Western civilization. In modified and extended form it is even present in Descartes' system of co-ordinates. In Romanesque church building, the quality of movement present in these directional axes of the cross-a quality often termed dynamic-is in conflict with the static qualities of general structure and concept. The shell of the Romanesque architectural structure is conceived in terms of a plane-wall-and-roof construction; the void is conceived as a series of box-shaped finite volumes, interdependent with the shell. The box-shaped parts of the interior necessitate a plane-wall-and-roof construction for their definition; that is, such a structure can hardly define anything other than a box-shaped void. The resulting structural and spatial articulation therefore combines finite space blocks in a more or less additive fashion. However, the immanent dynamism of the movement to be found in the two main axes, together with an increasing compulsion to stretch in height and depth, conflicted with the static elements of the Romanesque building. It was this conflict which compelled the builders of the period to develop new structural concepts. The first step in this development is a more dynamic interpretation of the plane wall, as instanced by the slight protrusions in common use by at least the eleventh century. These blind arcades-scarcely engaged columns, actually -may not have seemed, at first, to be more than a decorative elaboration of the plane wall. But they articulated the wall and gave rhythmic unity to the sequence of windows which were originally cut into the wall with little consideration for "structure." It is only in the light of later developments that one recognizes the structural potentialities of this innovation, for the later dissolution of the plane wall into structural elements, as well as its strengthened vertical articulation, would have been impossible without it. The spiritual heritage of the North is one of movement and structure, while that of the South is of a static and geometric character. The friction resulting from the opposition of these essentially differing attitudes is possibly the most important single factor in producing the subsequent great architectural ideas of the Western world. From it springs the general dynamization of space in the Gothic, manifest in the dissolution of the carrying plane wall, as well as its transformation into a number of new elements-the buttresses, piers, ogival vaults and ribs. The coordination of relatively isolated and independent spatial constituents was achieved in the Romanesque by simply adding the elements one to another, but in the Gothic this gives way to a structurally unified space. Windows cut from the plane wall give way to glazed screens stretched between structural parts of the building. The fundamentally post-and-lintel approach of carrying members with the load put on top of them (as practiced in the Romanesque) gives way to the new structural unity. An interdependence of vertical thrust and horizontal cover is achieved by both the pointed arch and the rib vault construction of the Gothic. In the late medieval city-state, the rural and feudal abbey church was replaced by the urban and proto-democratic cathedral which must serve a large congregation with a strong sense of being a unified community. The unity of PAUL M. LAPORTE Of the fine arts faculty of Macalester College is concerned with aesthetics and with the interdependence of the

    addClaim

    This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

    You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.
    1
    citations1
    popularityAverage
    influenceAverage
    impulseAverage
    BIP!Powered by BIP!
    more_vert
      addClaim

      This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

      You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.
  • Authors: Elwin C. Robison;

    The architecture of Guarini is distinguished from that of his Roman contemporaries by the complex geometries of his forms and the use of conic sections in his vaults. The use of advanced geometries in his domed churches was prompted not by numeric or structural theory but by optic considerations. The development of forced perspective in his vault shapes and use of light were influenced by theories on aesthetics and optics that were debated while Guarini was in Paris. The parallels between Guarini's architectural theory and that of Claude Perrault, as well as Guarini's unique aesthetic assessment of Gothic architecture, suggest that he developed these ideas during his four-year stay in Paris.

    addClaim

    This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

    You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.
    10
    citations10
    popularityAverage
    influenceTop 10%
    impulseAverage
    BIP!Powered by BIP!
    more_vert
      addClaim

      This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

      You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.
  • Authors: Christine Smith;

    The vault over the crossing at Pisa cathedral is elliptical in plan and has an exposed exterior profile. These characteristics, unique in 11th-century Tuscany, have caused scholars to doubt that the dome could have been built as part of the original cathedral fabric, which was largely complete by 1118. Yet Sanpaolesi's recent discussion of the problem, based on his study of the cupola during its restoration in 1957, presents substantial evidence in support of an early date (1090-1100) for the squinches and tambour below the cupola proper, and he argues convincingly that the cupola itself must share this date. Acceptance of his conclusions, however, does not necessitate assuming that the cupola was foreseen when the cathedral was planned in 1063, or that its original appearance conformed to what we see today. Indeed, I will argue that the unusual shape of the cupola is the inevitable consequence of a decision to vault the crossing, taken after the foundations of the cathedral were already laid. Further, I will present evidence which suggests that the exterior profile of the dome was not exposed originally, and has only been exposed since the late 14th century. Finally, I will show that in its original form the cupola was closely related to contemporary Lombard structures.

    addClaim

    This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

    You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.
    5
    citations5
    popularityAverage
    influenceAverage
    impulseAverage
    BIP!Powered by BIP!
    more_vert
      addClaim

      This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

      You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.
  • Authors: Malcolm Thurlby;

    The later medieval remodeling of the stylistically related abbey churches of Tewkesbury and Pershore has presented the architectural historian with the problem of ascertaining the nature of the original Romanesque design. One school of thought favors a four-story elevation for choir and transepts which would have entailed a wood roof; the other, while not agreeing on the number of stories, suggests the reconstruction of high barrel vaults. Detailed analysis of both fabrics in the context of West Country architecture after the Conquest and select French Romanesque structures will demonstrate the original existence of a three-story scheme with barrel vaults over the main spans.

    addClaim

    This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

    You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.
    3
    citations3
    popularityAverage
    influenceAverage
    impulseAverage
    BIP!Powered by BIP!
    more_vert
      addClaim

      This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

      You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.
  • Authors: Dietrich Neumann;
    addClaim

    This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

    You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.
    2
    citations2
    popularityAverage
    influenceAverage
    impulseAverage
    BIP!Powered by BIP!
    more_vert
      addClaim

      This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

      You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.
  • Authors: Turpin C. Bannister;

    THE USE of brick, stone, and concrete to construct incombustible buildings is a familiar story, but the cost, weight, and bulkiness of Roman, Mediaeval, and Renaissance vaulting systems restricted their comprehensive application to only the most monumental or most hazardous projects, such as the Venetian mint,' the Parisian observatory,2 the princely stables at Versailles,3 Chantilly,4 and the Quirinal,5 the public granaries at Genoa6 and Lyon,7 the Teatro Communale at Bologna,8 and the Royal Palace at Madrid.9 Perhaps the most thorough example of all was the fabulous church, convent, and palace group begun for John V at Mafra near Lisbon, compassing 88o vaulted rooms. Despite cargoes of Brazilian gold and diamonds, its cost was a major factor in the impoverishment of the Portuguese kingdom.10 Forbuildings wrought from lesser resources, timber remained the normal material for floors and roofs.11 It is against this setting that the concern of eighteenthcentury French architects for experimental vaulting must be viewed. They sought a system for the construction of incombustible floors and roofs that would be sufficiently economical to permit its use in ordinary buildings, light enough to obviate heavy supports, and of minimum depth so that interiors would not be obstructed or multi-story structures forced to excessive heights. This program meant the development of masonry shell vaults of low rise and small thrust, a paradox flouting all previous experience and theory.12 As so often happens in architectural history, the solution was rediscovered in a local building method. For centuries, the builders of Catalonia and Roussillon had employed light, flat, tile vaults in barns, stables, granaries, coach houses, and even churches. These vaults were built of one or more layers of thin tiles laid in quick-setting plaster mortar on a movable centering with a low elliptical profile. Rubble fill leveled the haunches to make a usable floor above. The resulting shell was surprisingly strong and exerted little thrust. No doubt the system derived chiefly from local modifications of mediaeval techniques.13 A fourteenth-century dormitory of the Franciscan convent at Perpignan, capital ofRoussillon, had sixty cells each covered with an elliptical vault one brick thick.14 Following the transfer of Roussillon to France in 1659, it was inevitable that Languedoc (Fig. i), the adjoining province to the north and long a center of brick architecture, should be influenced by this novel structural device. After the brutal suppression of the Camisards had ended Languedoc Protestantism in 1705, the friars renewed their missions and rehabilitated their houses, and in one of them, the Cap-

    addClaim

    This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

    You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.
    8
    citations8
    popularityAverage
    influenceTop 10%
    impulseAverage
    BIP!Powered by BIP!
    more_vert
      addClaim

      This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

      You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.
Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Subject
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
The following results are related to Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
20 Research products (1 rule applied)
  • Authors: Malcolm Thurlby;

    In his article on "Hereford Cathedral" published in the Archaeological Journal in 1877, Sir George Gilbert Scott suggested that the Romanesque presbytery was originally covered with a high groin vault on the basis of the suitability of the broad pilasters on the piers for supporting transverse arches of such a vault. While Scott's case for a high vault has been generally accepted, it has not been seriously tested through a detailed examination of the fabric. This note presents new evidence in the masonry above the eastern crossing arch in support of a Romanesque high vault, considers the manner of its construction in relation to other vaults in the West Country School of Romanesque architecture, and examines the case for its being of groined or ribbed design.

    addClaim

    This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

    You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.
    3
    citations3
    popularityAverage
    influenceAverage
    impulseAverage
    BIP!Powered by BIP!
    more_vert
      addClaim

      This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

      You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.
  • Authors: Robert Mark;
    addClaim

    This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

    You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.
    0
    citations0
    popularityAverage
    influenceAverage
    impulseAverage
    BIP!Powered by BIP!
    more_vert
      addClaim

      This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

      You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.
  • Authors: Jonathan Lane;
    addClaim

    This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

    You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.
    3
    citations3
    popularityAverage
    influenceAverage
    impulseAverage
    BIP!Powered by BIP!
    more_vert
      addClaim

      This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

      You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.
  • Authors: Alexander Badawy;

    IT needs no emphasis that symbolism played a predominant role in the religious and funerary architecture of all peoples in antiquity, and still does today. However, symbolic elements of architecture belong to an advanced stage in the development of representation. A much more primary stage is the one where the actual deity is represented architecturally as a structure formed according to his shape. This shape could be conceptual to suggest cosmic elements; for instance, the world itself as in the stupa of India, and the stretch of the horizon where the sun rises between two mountains as in the pylon of Egypt. It could also be simply realistic when it imitates the shape of an animal by which a deity is represented. Such a zoomorphic architecture may be exemplified in the so-called shrine of Anubis in Egypt. Drawings from the Archaic Period in Egypt (2800 B.C.) represent an edicule, probably religious or funerary, characterized by an irregular upper outline (figs. 1,2,3). Structurally it can be described as having an irregular vault with

    addClaim

    This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

    You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.
    0
    citations0
    popularityAverage
    influenceAverage
    impulseAverage
    BIP!Powered by BIP!
    more_vert
      addClaim

      This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

      You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.
  • Authors: Paul M. Laporte;

    MEDIEVAL church building developed as a result of a specific combination of technical knowledge, ritual requirements, and sociological conditions. The consecutive changes involved in this development seem to have transformed the prevalent habits of perceiving space in a specifically patterned form, consequently influencing the development of painting in a most profound manner. The early Romanesque church is predominantly an abbey church in a rural area. It was built mainly for the performance of religious services by the clergy, with little concern for a large congregation. Since an important part of the ritual is of a processional nature, there is a strong emphasis on the longitudinal axis of the nave leading toward the high altar. A correlative axis is introduced by the transept, distinguishing the processional character of the Christian church from that of the Egyptian temple. Whether or not the idea of the nave-transept configuration is derived from the early desire to give the plan of the church the symbolic shape of the cross, the lines of the Roman cross have become a basic means of organizing space in Western civilization. In modified and extended form it is even present in Descartes' system of co-ordinates. In Romanesque church building, the quality of movement present in these directional axes of the cross-a quality often termed dynamic-is in conflict with the static qualities of general structure and concept. The shell of the Romanesque architectural structure is conceived in terms of a plane-wall-and-roof construction; the void is conceived as a series of box-shaped finite volumes, interdependent with the shell. The box-shaped parts of the interior necessitate a plane-wall-and-roof construction for their definition; that is, such a structure can hardly define anything other than a box-shaped void. The resulting structural and spatial articulation therefore combines finite space blocks in a more or less additive fashion. However, the immanent dynamism of the movement to be found in the two main axes, together with an increasing compulsion to stretch in height and depth, conflicted with the static elements of the Romanesque building. It was this conflict which compelled the builders of the period to develop new structural concepts. The first step in this development is a more dynamic interpretation of the plane wall, as instanced by the slight protrusions in common use by at least the eleventh century. These blind arcades-scarcely engaged columns, actually -may not have seemed, at first, to be more than a decorative elaboration of the plane wall. But they articulated the wall and gave rhythmic unity to the sequence of windows which were originally cut into the wall with little consideration for "structure." It is only in the light of later developments that one recognizes the structural potentialities of this innovation, for the later dissolution of the plane wall into structural elements, as well as its strengthened vertical articulation, would have been impossible without it. The spiritual heritage of the North is one of movement and structure, while that of the South is of a static and geometric character. The friction resulting from the opposition of these essentially differing attitudes is possibly the most important single factor in producing the subsequent great architectural ideas of the Western world. From it springs the general dynamization of space in the Gothic, manifest in the dissolution of the carrying plane wall, as well as its transformation into a number of new elements-the buttresses, piers, ogival vaults and ribs. The coordination of relatively isolated and independent spatial constituents was achieved in the Romanesque by simply adding the elements one to another, but in the Gothic this gives way to a structurally unified space. Windows cut from the plane wall give way to glazed screens stretched between structural parts of the building. The fundamentally post-and-lintel approach of carrying members with the load put on top of them (as practiced in the Romanesque) gives way to the new structural unity. An interdependence of vertical thrust and horizontal cover is achieved by both the pointed arch and the rib vault construction of the Gothic. In the late medieval city-state, the rural and feudal abbey church was replaced by the urban and proto-democratic cathedral which must serve a large congregation with a strong sense of being a unified community. The unity of PAUL M. LAPORTE Of the fine arts faculty of Macalester College is concerned with aesthetics and with the interdependence of the

    addClaim

    This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

    You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.
    1
    citations1
    popularityAverage
    influenceAverage
    impulseAverage
    BIP!Powered by BIP!
    more_vert
      addClaim

      This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

      You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.
  • Authors: Elwin C. Robison;

    The architecture of Guarini is distinguished from that of his Roman contemporaries by the complex geometries of his forms and the use of conic sections in his vaults. The use of advanced geometries in his domed churches was prompted not by numeric or structural theory but by optic considerations. The development of forced perspective in his vault shapes and use of light were influenced by theories on aesthetics and optics that were debated while Guarini was in Paris. The parallels between Guarini's architectural theory and that of Claude Perrault, as well as Guarini's unique aesthetic assessment of Gothic architecture, suggest that he developed these ideas during his four-year stay in Paris.

    addClaim

    This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

    You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.
    10
    citations10
    popularityAverage
    influenceTop 10%
    impulseAverage
    BIP!Powered by BIP!
    more_vert