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  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: J, Cassirame; H, Sanchez; S, Homo; J, Frère;

    Since its first world record in 1992 and its official introduction in 1999 at the 7th IAAF World Championships, the women’s pole vault event has been little studied. First data showed that, similar...

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Computer Methods in ...arrow_drop_down
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    Computer Methods in Biomechanics & Biomedical Engineering
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Computer Methods in ...arrow_drop_down
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      Computer Methods in Biomechanics & Biomedical Engineering
      Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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  • Authors: Laroze, Emmanuel;

    Construction 1673, architectes Dominique Pilleporte, Jacques Peytret et Jules Hardouin-Mansart.

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  • Authors: Laroze, Emmanuel;

    Le bâtiment est construit entre 1752 et 1757 par l'architecte Jean-Antoine Giral

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Moreno Regan, Omar;

    Le métro de Paris, exploité par la Régie Autonome des Transports Parisiens (RATP), compte aujourd’hui seize lignes et transporte environ 5 millions de passagers par jour. L’ensemble des infrastructures du métro est essentiellement souterrain et a été construit pour la plupart au début du XXe siècle. Environ 85% des tunnels sont composés d’une voûte en maçonnerie et de piédroits et radier en béton non armé. Certains de ces ouvrages présentent des pathologies de dégradation, notamment des fissures en clé de voûte et des discontinuités dans le contact tunnel-sol encaissant. Lors de travaux dans les tunnels ou à proximité, le comportement de la maçonnerie de la voûte est difficile à appréhender, d’une part parce que les matériaux constitutifs sont rarement étudiés de façon approfondie et d’autre part parce qu’il existe peu de modèles de calcul qui intègrent l’environnement particulier de ces tunnels. La thèse décrit un modèle de comportement permettant de représenter au mieux le comportement des voûtes en maçonnerie de tunnel. Ce modèle a été implanté dans un code de calcul par éléments finis, afin de pouvoir évaluer l’influence de travaux à proximité. Pour cela, un modèle existant dans la littérature a été choisi et adapté : le comportement des voûtes en maçonnerie est représenté par une loi de comportement qui combine une technique d’homogénéisation de la maçonnerie et une loi d’endommagement isotrope décrivant l’évolution des propriétés mécaniques des matériaux constitutifs, ce qui permet de reproduire de façon implicite le comportement non linéaire orthotrope de la voûte ; le comportement des piédroits et du radier est représenté par une loi d’endommagement isotrope. Le modèle proposé, implanté dans le code de calcul CESAR-LCPC, permet de reproduire le mécanisme de ruine d’un tunnel par la formation de rotules. Parallèlement au travail de modélisation, la thèse présente une campagne d’essais de laboratoire qui caractérise les matériaux constitutifs de la voûte et des piédroits et du radier, et qui donne la valeur des paramètres du modèle. Ces essais ont été réalisés sur des éprouvettes issues de carottes prélevées in situ. Enfin, le modèle numérique, alimenté par les caractéristiques mécaniques issues des essais en laboratoire, est utilisé pour simuler la réponse d’un tunnel en maçonnerie à des chargements appliqués à proximité. Cette modélisation a été conduite sur deux cas d’étude concernant le réseau du métro parisien The Paris subway system, operated by the Régie Autonome des Transports Parisiens (RATP), has sixteen lines and carries about 5 million passengers daily. The infrastructure is mostly underground and was built predominantly in the early twentieth century. About 85% of the tunnels are built with a masonry vault and unreinforced concrete sidewalls and slab. Some of these structures show degradation pathologies, notably cracks at the crown of the tunnel and discontinuities at the tunnel – soil interface. When civil engineering works are carried out in the tunnels or nearby, the behavior of the masonry vault is difficult to predict, firstly because the constitutive materials of the tunnel are rarely thoroughly studied and secondly because there are few models that incorporate the particular behavior of these tunnels. The thesis describes a model that represents the behavior of the masonry tunnel vaults. This model was implemented in a finite element code in order to assess the influence of nearby engineering works. In the selected approach, an existing model was selected from the literature and adapted to our study: the behavior of the masonry vault is represented by the selected model that combines a homogenization technique for the masonry and an isotropic damage law describing the evolution of the mechanical properties of each component, thus reproducing implicitly the nonlinear orthotropic behavior of the vault; the behavior of the sidewalls and slab is represented by an isotropic damage law. The proposed model, implemented in the computer code CESAR-LCPC, reproduces the failure mechanism of a tunnel by the formation of hinges. Alongside the modeling work, a laboratory test campaign was undertaken to characterize the materials of the vault, sidewalls and slab, and to estimate the model parameters. These tests were carried out on specimens taken from cores extracted in situ. Finally, the numerical model, along with the characteristics obtained from laboratory testing, is used to simulate the response of a masonry tunnel subjected to loads applied nearby in two case studies on the Paris subway system

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    Other literature type . 2016
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    Doctoral thesis . 2016
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      Other literature type . 2016
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      Doctoral thesis . 2016
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Mathias Fantin; Thierry Ciblac;

    International audience; Thrust network analysis is usually applied to form finding of compressive-only structure. In order to study existing structures of historic interest, the joints of the structure need to be taken into account. We study the meaning of the three-dimensional thrust network with respect to the two-dimensional historical concepts of the line of pressure and line of resistance. We propose the refinement of the networks using additional branches with specific properties to widen the set of equilibrium solutions that can be computed. Finally, the application of the method to historic approaches of vault calculation is considered, as well as the convergence of the numerical geometrical coefficient of safety toward Heyman’s geometrical coefficient of safety.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao International Journa...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    International Journal of Space Structures
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
    License: SAGE TDM
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Balandier, Claire; Morvillez, Eric;

    In 2008, a French archaeological expedition started to lead excavations on Fabrika hill on the North-East side of the ancient city of Nea Paphos. The two first archaeological seasons (spring 2008 and 2009) focused on the Northern part of the hill (area A) and on the Eastern slope behind the ancient theatre (area B). On the North side, a long terrace wall was uncovered, badly built. A trial sounding dates it from the end of the 1st c. B. C. or beginning of the 1st c. A. D. Very damaged walls, probably dwellings, of the later periods have also been put to light. On the terrace East of the wall we made two trial soundings in order to try to date the levels of occupation of the hill : two human skeletons from Ottoman times were uncovered. On the Eastern side of the hill we found a building carved out the bedrock. It could be date to the 13th c. A. D., according to the ceramic and to the mould of the seal of an Italian bishop found in the destruction level. The destruction of the vault seems to show that it had been destroyed by an earthquake at the very end of the 13th or beginning of the 14th century. In 2010, we will remove the whole destruction level and, hopefully, may be able to identify the function of this important building. Moreover, we will start and improvement of the Apollo Hylates sanctuary at Alonia tou Episcopou, 2 km East of Fabrika hill. Morvillez Éric, Balandier Claire. Nouvelles recherches archéologiques à Paphos : premiers résultats de la mission française sur la colline de Fabrika (2008-2009). In: Cahiers du Centre d'Etudes Chypriotes. Volume 39, 2009. Actes du colloque « Chypre à l’époque hellénistique et impériale », Recherches récentes et nouvelles découvertes, Université Paris Ouest-Nanterre et Institut National d’Histoire de l’Art Nanterre – Paris 25-26 septembre 2009. pp. 425-447.

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    Cahiers du Centre d Etudes Chypriotes
    Article . 2009 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Vanel, Loïc;

    Les forces de contact dans un milieu granulaire se répartissent de façon très inhomogène en un réseau de "chaînes de forces" qui supporte la plus grosse partie des contraintes. Il est primordial de bien comprendre l'influence du désordre des forces à l'échelle du grain sur les propriétés d'équilibre mécanique d'un milieu granulaire à l'échelle macroscopique.La mesure de forces dans un milieu granulaire est délicate à cause d'un couplage fondamental entre les déformations du capteur et la mobilisation des forces de friction entre grains ou entre grains et paroi. Cependant, en définissant proprement le protocole de mesure, nous avons pu améliorer de façon très significative la reproductibilité des résultats en comparaison des mesures que l'on trouve dans la littérature.Nous nous sommes intéressé aux liens qui existent entre la structure de l'empilement granulaire et la répartition des contraintes. Sous l'effet d'un cisaillement ou de vibrations, l'équilibre d'une colonne granulaire dans un silo évolue considérablement ainsi que la structure de l'empilement comme le révèlent des mesures de densité moyenne et locale. Sous le sommet d'un tas de sable formé par écoulement des grains en avalanches, j'ai observé très clairement un minimum ou "trou" de pression, alors que la pression est maximum si les grains sont déposés en couches horizontales. Nous avons aussi mesuré les fluctuations résiduelles de la pression en fonction de la taille des grains ou de la hauteur de remplissage du silo et ai observé que leur dépendance avec la taille des grains montrent une régression statistique anormale en comparaison de celle déduite de la distribution des forces à l'échelle du grain.La plupart des observations sont qualitativement et quantitativement bien reproduites par le modèle OSL dans lequel les contraintes se propagent selon deux directions dont l'une s'identifie à la direction moyenne des chaînes de forces. La notion de propagation anisotrope de forces permet de comprendre la distribution de pression sous un tas ou la forme de la courbe de saturation de la pression dans un silo, y compris les oscillations de la pression en présence d'une surcharge.Nous avons proposé en outre un modèle de durcissement d'arches qui permet d'expliquer l'existence d'un mode d'écoulement fragmentaire après renversement d'un tube rempli de grains et met en évidence le rôle non négligeable de l'élasticité des parois. Experiments show that contact forces in a granular medium are very inhomogeneous and form a network of "force chains" bearing the major part of the stress. This thesis is aimed at understanding how important the force chains are in the description of the mechanical equilibrium properties of a granular material. Measuring forces in a granular material is tricky due to a fundamental coupling between the sensor deformations and the mobilization of friction forces inside the granular material or at a boundary wall. However, it is possible to get reproducible and significant results when using a well-defined measurement procedure. We have been interested in studying the links between the structure of the granular packing and the stress distribution. The equilibrium of a granular material in a silo is very sensitive to shearing or vibrations which also affect the structure of the packing as shown by local and average density measurements. Below the apex of a sandpile formed with avalanching grains, we observe a pressure minimum or "dip", but the pressure is a maximum when the grains are deposited in horizontal layers. Residual pressure fluctuations have been measured as a function of the grain size or the filling height of the silo. Most of our observations are qualitatively and quantitatively well-described by the OSL model where the stresses propagate along two directions, one of them corresponding to the mean direction of force chains. The idea of force propagation allows us to understand the pressure distribution below a sandpile or the shape of the pressure saturation curve in a silo, including the pressure oscillations when there is a surcharge. We also propose a model of arch hardening which explains the existence of a fragmentation mode when turning a tube filled with grains uspside down.

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    Other literature type . 1999
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    Doctoral thesis . 1999
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      Other literature type . 1999
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    Authors: Raffaella Bianucci; Donatella Lippi; Antonio Perciaccante; Philippe Charlier; +1 Authors

    The brilliant painter, sculptor, architect and poem writer of the Italian Renaissance, Michelangelo Buonarroti (Fig. 1) documented his own life, habits and diseases [1]. Between 1508 and 1512, he painted the vault of the Sistine Chapel and described his demanding work in a poem addressed to Giovanni da Pistoia. Lying supine all day on a high scaffold, his head was bent forwards using muscle contractions and support for hours with paint dripping on his face [1]. After two years (1510), he had trouble with his eyes.

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    Medical Hypotheses
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Medical Hypothesesarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Medical Hypotheses
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Mouton, Benjamin;

    [ES] El incendio dramático de la cubierta de Notre Dame de París ha dado lugar a numerosas propuestas imaginativas para la reconstitución del monumento, más allá de una reflexión real y respetuosa. Por otro lado, la única vía para una recuperación fidedigna parece ser un enfoque metódico que parta del análisis y comprensión del monumento y de su carácter simbólico y arquitectónico. Las reparaciones puntuales a realizar son fáciles pero la cubierta y la aguja han abierto un debate que reclama una deliberación más profunda: el estudio de la cubierta no puede desvincularse de su rol en la estabilización de las bóvedas; y la aguja, una obra maestra de la arquitectura decimonónica parte de un skyline legendario, exige su reconstrucción. El retorno al icono gótico mundialmente famoso se antoja como la única respuesta arquitectónica correcta. [EN] The dramatic blaze of the roof of Notre-Dame de Paris gave way to intense imaginative proposals for the monument repairs, far from realist and respectful considerations. In the other hand, the methodical approach, coming from the monument’s analyse and understanding, its symbolic and architectural sense, seems to be the only way for its faithful recovery. If the works for repairs are easy to adopt, the roof and the spire are in an open debate, which claims to more clever considerations: the roof cannot be studied out of its major structural assessment on the vaults; and the spire, both one of the 19th c. major masterpiece of architecture, and a legendary skyline, calls for it’s rebuilt. Back to the world famous gothic icon seems to be the only correct architectural answer.

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    Authors: Kilian Laclavetine; David Giovannacci; Marie Radepont; Anne Michelin; +4 Authors

    During initial conservator's investigation of paneled wooden vault of the church in Le Quillio, 17th century paintings, hidden behind painted canvas nailed on the panels were discovered. A closer look on these paintings and some exposure windows showed the presence of an older paint layer. This layer corresponds to the first vault decoration, dating back all the way at the end of 15th century, existence of which was attested by written sources. However, the conservation state of the original pictorial layer was unknown, so it was not possible to make a decision to uncover it without further information acquired, preferably, noninvasively. Examination of different layers was performed by extracting, processing and cross‐referencing the information from the complementary data obtained from macro X‐ray fluorescence scanning as well as multi‐ and hyperspectral imaging. This allowed to characterize the mineral composition of different layers and to attribute them respectively to the end of 15th century original painting, the 17th century overpaint and to the later 19th century interventions corresponding rather to a large retouching or restoration. Our study also showed the particularities of the mounting of panels, as some parts on the first decoration's paint seem to be partially discontinued between successive panels and may attest to the exchange of panels between different parts of the vault. This pilot study was conducted on an only small part of the large vault (0.4% of the 32 m2). Further, more extensive investigations will be required to better understand this complex object and its complex history.

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    X-Ray Spectrometry
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: J, Cassirame; H, Sanchez; S, Homo; J, Frère;

    Since its first world record in 1992 and its official introduction in 1999 at the 7th IAAF World Championships, the women’s pole vault event has been little studied. First data showed that, similar...

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    Computer Methods in Biomechanics & Biomedical Engineering
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      Computer Methods in Biomechanics & Biomedical Engineering
      Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Laroze, Emmanuel;

    Construction 1673, architectes Dominique Pilleporte, Jacques Peytret et Jules Hardouin-Mansart.

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  • Authors: Laroze, Emmanuel;

    Le bâtiment est construit entre 1752 et 1757 par l'architecte Jean-Antoine Giral

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Moreno Regan, Omar;

    Le métro de Paris, exploité par la Régie Autonome des Transports Parisiens (RATP), compte aujourd’hui seize lignes et transporte environ 5 millions de passagers par jour. L’ensemble des infrastructures du métro est essentiellement souterrain et a été construit pour la plupart au début du XXe siècle. Environ 85% des tunnels sont composés d’une voûte en maçonnerie et de piédroits et radier en béton non armé. Certains de ces ouvrages présentent des pathologies de dégradation, notamment des fissures en clé de voûte et des discontinuités dans le contact tunnel-sol encaissant. Lors de travaux dans les tunnels ou à proximité, le comportement de la maçonnerie de la voûte est difficile à appréhender, d’une part parce que les matériaux constitutifs sont rarement étudiés de façon approfondie et d’autre part parce qu’il existe peu de modèles de calcul qui intègrent l’environnement particulier de ces tunnels. La thèse décrit un modèle de comportement permettant de représenter au mieux le comportement des voûtes en maçonnerie de tunnel. Ce modèle a été implanté dans un code de calcul par éléments finis, afin de pouvoir évaluer l’influence de travaux à proximité. Pour cela, un modèle existant dans la littérature a été choisi et adapté : le comportement des voûtes en maçonnerie est représenté par une loi de comportement qui combine une technique d’homogénéisation de la maçonnerie et une loi d’endommagement isotrope décrivant l’évolution des propriétés mécaniques des matériaux constitutifs, ce qui permet de reproduire de façon implicite le comportement non linéaire orthotrope de la voûte ; le comportement des piédroits et du radier est représenté par une loi d’endommagement isotrope. Le modèle proposé, implanté dans le code de calcul CESAR-LCPC, permet de reproduire le mécanisme de ruine d’un tunnel par la formation de rotules. Parallèlement au travail de modélisation, la thèse présente une campagne d’essais de laboratoire qui caractérise les matériaux constitutifs de la voûte et des piédroits et du radier, et qui donne la valeur des paramètres du modèle. Ces essais ont été réalisés sur des éprouvettes issues de carottes prélevées in situ. Enfin, le modèle numérique, alimenté par les caractéristiques mécaniques issues des essais en laboratoire, est utilisé pour simuler la réponse d’un tunnel en maçonnerie à des chargements appliqués à proximité. Cette modélisation a été conduite sur deux cas d’étude concernant le réseau du métro parisien The Paris subway system, operated by the Régie Autonome des Transports Parisiens (RATP), has sixteen lines and carries about 5 million passengers daily. The infrastructure is mostly underground and was built predominantly in the early twentieth century. About 85% of the tunnels are built with a masonry vault and unreinforced concrete sidewalls and slab. Some of these structures show degradation pathologies, notably cracks at the crown of the tunnel and discontinuities at the tunnel – soil interface. When civil engineering works are carried out in the tunnels or nearby, the behavior of the masonry vault is difficult to predict, firstly because the constitutive materials of the tunnel are rarely thoroughly studied and secondly because there are few models that incorporate the particular behavior of these tunnels. The thesis describes a model that represents the behavior of the masonry tunnel vaults. This model was implemented in a finite element code in order to assess the influence of nearby engineering works. In the selected approach, an existing model was selected from the literature and adapted to our study: the behavior of the masonry vault is represented by the selected model that combines a homogenization technique for the masonry and an isotropic damage law describing the evolution of the mechanical properties of each component, thus reproducing implicitly the nonlinear orthotropic behavior of the vault; the behavior of the sidewalls and slab is represented by an isotropic damage law. The proposed model, implemented in the computer code CESAR-LCPC, reproduces the failure mechanism of a tunnel by the formation of hinges. Alongside the modeling work, a laboratory test campaign was undertaken to characterize the materials of the vault, sidewalls and slab, and to estimate the model parameters. These tests were carried out on specimens taken from cores extracted in situ. Finally, the numerical model, along with the characteristics obtained from laboratory testing, is used to simulate the response of a masonry tunnel subjected to loads applied nearby in two case studies on the Paris subway system

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    Other literature type . 2016
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    Doctoral thesis . 2016
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Mathias Fantin; Thierry Ciblac;

    International audience; Thrust network analysis is usually applied to form finding of compressive-only structure. In order to study existing structures of historic interest, the joints of the structure need to be taken into account. We study the meaning of the three-dimensional thrust network with respect to the two-dimensional historical concepts of the line of pressure and line of resistance. We propose the refinement of the networks using additional branches with specific properties to widen the set of equilibrium solutions that can be computed. Finally, the application of the method to historic approaches of vault calculation is considered, as well as the convergence of the numerical geometrical coefficient of safety toward Heyman’s geometrical coefficient of safety.

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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    International Journal of Space Structures
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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