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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Rossetti, Ilaria;
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Archivio della ricer...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctv1...
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Archivio della ricer...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctv1...
      Part of book or chapter of book . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Romano, Licia;
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    https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctvh...
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Archivio della ricer...arrow_drop_down
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      https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctvh...
      Part of book or chapter of book . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Krylova Severina Vyacheslavovna;

    This article shows the interdependences of territorial distribution of temples and their architectural-spatial and compositional features in St. Petersburg and the counties. The author revealed two different approaches to temple arrangement depending on the type of environment - in urban areas and rural areas. The construction of a temple in St. Petersburg was strictly regulated: its space-planning solution, accommodation, the place assigned for parish church, etc. The article draws attention to the particular choice of solutions, removal of land for construction, and certain architectural features of the temples. The author generally distinguishes four types of space-planning decisions of religious buildings: hall multiplex (The Basilica) in the form of a Latin cross, centric (cross dome as the most common types of churches), combined. In turn, these types of temples were correlated with various types of accommodation identified by the author. Spatial distribution of temples include: a) the location of temples in the natural landscape system and b) with respect to the location of the man-made temples' environment (historical and cultural), in correlation with the buildings and / or communications (land and water communications), c) the formation of a spatially-visual network (system) of the city and surrounding area. For a better understanding of the revealed dependences chronological phase analysis was used, since the time prior to Saint Petersburg construction and till 1850. The periodization of temple architecture development during 1703-1850 was identified. The period before Saint Petersburg was also considered, though less detailed. The stages are minimal chronological segments, within which settlement system was unified by spatial and social characteristics, as well as uniform rules of specific territorial, economic and social development. As chronological boundaries, specific dates of the events were identified, which determined the transition to new stages. This approach allowed to gradually track changes in the methods of selecting and placing three-dimensional solution of various temples. The studies revealed that the temple was a member of the system, which includes urban development, individual settlements and their groups, the natural landscape. They were all interrelated, representing the idea of continuity, harmony with each other and the environment (natural and manmade). Such an organic fusion of church and surroundings have a mutual influence: the temple on the environment and the environment on the object.

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    Vestnik MGSU
    Article . 2014
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      Article . 2014
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    Authors: Borgia, Emanuela;
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Archivio della ricer...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Gökce, Fuat;

    ÖZET Apollo Smintheus Tapınağı Biga Yanmasın in güneybatı ucunda, Çanakkale İli sınırlan içinde, Gülpınar beldesindedir. Yapı, beldenin kuzey eteklerinde `bahçeleriçi` olarak adlandırılan bölgede, yörenin en zengin kaynaklarının hemen yanında bulunmaktadır. Yapının bu alanda konumlanmasının en önemli nedenlerinden biri de Apollon kültü için önemli öğelerden biri olan su kaynağının bu noktada bulunmasıdır. Tapmak ilk olarak Jean Baptista Le Chevalier tarafından Babakale'den Aleksandria Troas'a seyahati sırasında tespit edilmiş ve bilim dünyasına duyurmuştur. 1853 yılında bölgeye harita çahşmalan için gelen Spratt bulduğu bir yazıt sayesinde yapının Apollo Smintheus kültüne ait olduğunu tespit etmiştir. 1861 yılında yöreye gelen ve kalıntılan inceleyen R.P. Pullan, 1866 yılında iki ay süreyle kazı çahşmalan yürütmüş ve yapı ile ilgili bulgularım yayınlayarak temel mimari niteliklerini bilim dünyasına tanıtmıştır. 1980 yılından buyana Prof Dr. Coşkun özgünel başkanlığında yürütülen kazılar, çeşitli mesleklerden bilim adamlarını, uzmanlan ve öğrencileri biraraya getirmiş, yürütülen disiplinlerarası çalışmalar tapınağın birçok özelliğinin tespit edilebilmesini ve bilim dünyasına duyurulmasını sağlamıştır. Çalışmalar sonunda yapı koruma altma alınmış, onarılmış ve çevre düzeni yapılmıştır. Apollon Smintheus tapınağı mimari ve bezeme nitelikleriyle Hellenistik dönem yapılan içinde özel bir öneme sahiptir.Yapının temelleri üç katmanlıdır. Birinci katman yörede en kolay bulunan yapı malzemelerinden biri olan tüf ile inşa edilmiştir. Onun üzerindeki katman ise andezit olup en üst katmanda mermer kullanılmıştır. Tapınağın onbir basamaklı merdivenleri dahil, görünen tüm yüzeyleri mermerdir. Tapınak pseudo-dipteros düzenindedir. Kısa kenarlarında sekizer, uzun kenarlarında ise ondörder adet sütun bulunmaktadır. Cella binası ise derin bir pronaos, naos ve çok sığ bir ophistodomos'dan oluşmaktadır. Sütunlar bir kaide, yedi adet sütun tamburu ve ionik düzende bir başlıktan oluşmaktadır. Sütunların yedinci tamburları İliada destanından sahnelerin betimlendiği ya da girland- bukranion motifli yüksek kabartmalara sahiptir. Yapının bu özelliği Hellenistik dönem içinde tek örnektir. Üstyapı, zengin süslemelere sahip arşitravlar ile başlamaktadır. Friz bandı, İliada destanının betimlendiği yüksek kabartmalara sahip olup, tapınak mimarisi içinde tek örnektir. Üstyapı diş sırası, geison ve sima elemanları ile tamamlanmaktadır. Tapınağın mimarı ve yaptıranı bilinmemektedir. Bu çalışma, esas olarak tapınağın yapım sistemlerini, inşaat detaylarım ve mimari niteliklerini incelemeyi amaçlamaktadır. SUMMARY The temple of Apollo Smintheus is situated in the south-west corner of Biga Peninsula. It is within the boundaries of the city of Çanakkale and in the municipality of Gülpınar which was called `Külahlı` until 1920's. The temple is located in the garden plot of the town which is nourished by spring waters. This could be the reason why the temple was erected in this site since spring water is needed for Apollon Cult. The temple was first made known to the world of archaeology by Jean Baptista Le Chevalier in 1785 when he saw some remains of the temple as he was travelling from Lectum-Babakale to Alexandria Troas. In 1853 English Admiral R.N. Spratt visited the site as he was working on the cartography of the environs. He recognized the building as the sacred place of Apollo in the ionic order. According to an inscription he announced the temple as relating to the cult of Smintheus(mouse). After Spratt, R.P. Pullan visited this area in 1861 and started excavations in 1866. His excavation was sponsored by the Society of Diletantti. Since 1980, the systematic excavations, restoration and presentation work are carried out by a team including many specialists and students under the direction of ProfDr. Coşkun Özgünel.The temple of Apollo Smintheus from Hellenistic Age (B.C. 330-30) draws attention because of its architectural design, its style and its ornamentation depicting scenes from Iliad. It is a unique example constructed in B.C. 125-150 in Ionic order discovered until present time in Troad. It has a pseudo-dipteral plan which was widespreaded in Hellenistic Age of which outstanding architect Hermogenes was thought to be the `inventor` of this plan arrangement. The temple of Apollo Smintheus had 8 columns on front and backsides and 14 columns on long sides. Three different elements were used in its substructure. The foundation was built of volcanic tufa blocks which were specific for the environs. On top, the andesite blocks were used. Then the stylobate and eleven steps were covered by marble at the upper surface. The sacred area was composed of three rooms: namely pronaos, naos and opisthodomos. The colums of the temple were composed of a base, seven drums and an ionic capital The seventh drum of the column (columna caelata) was ornamented by bukranion (bull's head and girlands) or by mythological figures which is unique. The superstructure (entablature) consisted of architrave (ornamented with egg-and- tongue, bead-and-reel motifs) and the frieze which is ornamented with Iliad scenes.The mythological events which were depicted on the reliefs of the temple is unique in the world of archaeology. Dentils, geison and sima respectively complete the superstructure. The architect and the founder are unknown until the present time. This study mainly deals with the construction systems, structural details and architectural features of the temple. 178

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    Authors: Erdoğan, Aytekin;

    Bu çalışma içerisinde Phokaia kentinin farklı bölgelerinde yer alan kaya kutsal alanlarının tanımlanması, tarihlendirilmesi ve içerisinde tapım gören tanrı ve tanrıçaların belirlenmesine çalışılır. Phokaia antik kenti içerisinde çok sayıda kaya kutsal alanı bulunur. Bu kaya kutsal alanları kent içerisinde farklı bölgelerde Değirmenli Tepe ve Altımağarası Tepesi -, adalarda -İncir Adası ve Orak Adası- ve kent dışında -Taş Kule ve Yeniköy- yer alır. Kent içerisindeki kaya kutsal alanları yerleşim alanından uzakta-, kent duvarlarına yakın alanlarda ve deniz kenarındadır. Kutsal alanların tamamı kayalık alanlar üzerindedir ve bir ya da daha fazla sayıda tapınım alanından oluşur. Tapınım alanları içerisinde kayanın düzeltilmesiyle oluşturulan nişler, sunu alanları, kaya çanakları, sıvı sunu kanalları ve düzeltilmiş alanlar bulunur. Phokaia dinsel yaşamı içerisinde yer alan tanrı ve tanrıçaların bir bölümü sahip oldukları kült özellikleri nedeniyle kaya kutsal alanları ile ilişkilendirilir. Ana Tanrıça- Kybele, Zeus, Poseidon Apollon, Aphrodit, Dionysos bu tanrılar arasındadır. Kültü kesin olarak belirlenmiş tek tanrıça Kybele'dir. Kaya kutsal alanlarının kent içerisindeki konumu, nişler içerisindeki kabartmalar, kazı buluntuları, yazıtlar ve Phokaia kolonilerinde görülen Ana Tanrıça-Kybele tapımının ana kentten gitmiş olduğunun anlaşılması gibi sonuçlar da kentte yoğun bir Ana Tanrıça tapınımı olduğunu gösterir. Tanrıça kentte bilinen kült yapısına uygun olarak yalnızca yüksek tepeler üzerinde değil, aynı zamanda deniz kenarındaki kaya kutsal alanları içerisinde de tapım görür. Kaya kutsal alanları Arkaik Dönem'den başlayan ve Roma Dönemi'ne kadar devam eden uzun bir süreç içerisinde kullanılmıştır. Anadolu'da, Adalar'da, Yunanistan'da, Güney İtalya ve Sicilya'da bu kaya kutsal alanlarının benzer örnekleri vardır. Buna karşın yalnızca Phokaia kaya kutsal alanlarına özgü olan ve benzer örneğine rastlanmayan bazı uygulamalar da söz konusudur. Bu farklı uygulamalar nedeniyle Phokaia Kaya Kutsal Alanları benzer örnekleri içerisinde ayrı bir yere sahiptir. This dissertation includes the descriptions and dating of the rock-cut sanctuaries found in different parts of the ancient city of Phokaia as well as the determination of gods and goddesses that were worshipped in. There are numerous rock-cut sanctuaries found in Phokaia. These are located at different sections of the city such as Değirmenli Tepe, Altınmağarası Tepesi and Harbour Area, on the islands of İncir and Orak and out of the city where Taş Kule and Yeniköy are present. These rock-cut sanctuaries were built away from the center of the settlements near to the city walls or by the seaside. All of the sanctuaries are situated in rocky areas and consist of one or more parts. Rock-cut niches, adoration sections, rock hollows and libation channels are the basic parts of a rock-cut sanctuary. Due to the cultic properties of the gods and goddesses found in the religious world of Phokaia, some deities were seen in relation with the sanctuaries. The Mother Goddess- Kybele, Leukothea, Zeus, Poseidon, Apollon, Aphrodite, Dionysos and Artemis are accepted as the primary ones among those deities. Kybele is the only goddess whose cult has been determined for certain. On the basis of the location of the rock-cut sanctuaries, the reliefs found in niches, the excavation artifacts, the inscriptions and the worship of Kybele carried out in the colonies of Phokaia which was derived from the main city, it might be claimed that the worship for Mother Goddess was extensively seen in the city of Phokaia. However, Kybele maintained her religious importance in Phokaia not only in high hills but also in rock- cut sanctuaries at seaside. The rock-cut sanctuaries in Phokaia were in use a long time range between Archaic and Roman periods. Similar specimens of these are attested in Anatolia, Kyklades, Greece, South Italy and Sicily. However, some applications peculiar to only Phokaian sanctuaries make them original among their parallels. 919

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  • Authors: Supot Chittasutthiyan;
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    Authors: Rui Gao;
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    Authors: Demirtaş, Mazlum Baki;

    54 ÖZET Antik yapıların mimari blokları üzerinde görülen taşçı işaretleri harf, kısaltma, sayı ya da açık isimler olarak, blokların yapıdaki yerlerini belirlemek veya para ödemesinde kontrolü sağlamak amacıyla yapılmışlardı. Mimari açıdan, yapıların rekonstrüksiyonlannm ve restitüsyonlannm yapılmasında büyük yardımı olan taşçı işaretleri, aynı zamanda yapıda çalışan usta, atölye ve taşeronlar hakkında da bilgi vermekte, onları tanımlamamızı sağlamaktadırlar. Genel olarak ele alındıklarında ise, antik yapılar arasındaki bazı ilişkileri ortaya koyabilmektedirler. Buna rağmen arkeolojide taşçı işaretleri üzerinde yeterince durulmamaktadır. Taşçı işaretlerinden nasıl yararlanılacağını ve yapılar arasında ne tür ilişkiler kurulabileceğini göstermek için, Anadolu'nun farklı bölgelerinde bulunan ve antik dönemin büyük yapılan arasında yer alan Apollon Smintheus ve Artemis Leukophryene Tapınakları'nda bu tür bir inceleme ve karşılaştırma yapılmıştır. Apollon Tapınağı'nda 1993, 94, 95 kazı sezonlarında yapılan incelemeler sonucu yapıda kullanılan tüf, andezit,mermer bloklar üzerinde; taşeron, atölye, usta ve sıralama işaretleri olarak yorumlanan taşçı işaretleri saptanmıştır. Artemis Tapınağı'nda da 1997 kazı sezonunda yapılan incelemelerde, atölye işaretleri dışında, aynı amaçlarla yapılmış farklı taşçı işaretleri saptanmıştır. Ancak Artemis Tapınağı'ndaki taşçı işaretleri birbiriyle ilişkisi olmayan, dağınık şekiller gösterdiklerinden, bazı işaretler kesin bir tanımlamaya olanak vermemektedirler. Apollon Smintheus Tapınağı'nın taşçı işaretleri ise, hangi amaçla yapılmış olursa55 olsun, daha sistematik bir dağılım göstermekte, bu nedenle Apollon Tapınağı'nın işaretleri Artemis Tapınağı'ndan daha doğru olarak tammlanabilmektedirler. Her iki tapmakta.tapmaklar arasındaki benzerlikleri veya farklılıkları göstermek amacıyla yapılan incelemelerde, mimari blokların yerleştirilmesinde kullanılan sıralama teknikleri dışında, özel amaçlı işaretlerde herhangi bir benzerlik saptanamamıştır. Antik yapılarda kullanılan sıralama teknikleri de her yerde karşımıza çıkabilecek, belli kuralları takip eden uygulamalar olduklarından, benzerlikleri yapılar arasındaki ilişkileri gösteren olgular olarak kabul edilemezler. Ancak yapılan bu incelemeler, Artemis Tapmağı 'ndaki bazı usta işaretlerinin, Didyma Apollon Tapmağı ve Milet güney agoradaki, depo yapılarında bulunan işaretlerle ilişkileri olabileceğini göstermektedir. Bu da taşçı işaretleri yardımıyla farklı yapılar arasında ilişki kurulabileceğini kanıtlamakta, fakat söz konusu işaretlerin yorumunu güçleştirmektedir. Çünkü böyle bir durumda işaretler, usta, atölye veya yapıya işçi sağlayan yerel zenginleri tanımlayabilmektedirler. Apollon smintheus ve Artemis Leukophryene Tapınaklarında saptanan işaretler, yapılar arasındaki herhangi bir ilişkiyi göstermeseler de, özel saptamalar yapılmasını sağlamışlardır. Bu sayede tapmaklarda çalışan bazı ustaların isimleri (AHMOS0ENEE veya AHMOKHT05: ; AIOKAEZ ve MENOC) ve atölyelerle taşeronlara ait işaretler saptanmış; bloklarda uygulanan sıralama teknikleri oluşturulup, blokların restitüsyonlan yapılmıştır. Söz konusu bloklar üzerinde yapılan çalışmalar, taşçı işaretlerinin arkeolojideki önemini bir kez daha gözler önüne sermiş; antik yapıların mimari blokları üzerinde görülen işaretlerden nasıl yararlanılabileceğini ve ne gibi sonuçlar elde edilebileceğini göstermiştir. 56 SUMMARY Masons' marks on architectural blocks of ancient buildings had been made as letters, abbrevations, numbers or masons' names, in order to determine places on building of architectural block or to check in payment. Mason's marks which asist to reconstruct and to restate of ancient buildings inform of masons, workshops and subcontractor workwd in a building and provide us to identify them. Although masons' marks explain some relation in between ancient buildings as well, not to be shown concern for masons' marks in archeology. Masons' marks on architectural blocks of temple of Apollon Smintheus and the temple of Artemis Leukophryene, which are in different regions of Anatolia and of famous buildings in ancient times, have been compared with eachothers, so as to show to benefit from masons' marks and how to establish relations in between ancient buildings with aid of masons' marks. Masons' marks defining as subcontractors, workshops', masons' and setting marks have determined on tufa, andesit and marble blocks of Apollon Temple at 1993, 94,95 excavation seasons. On temple of Artemis Leukophryene at 1997 excavation season, masons' marks having been made for same aim have been determined on traverten and marble blocks. Because, masons' marks on Artemis Temple show disorganized and unrelated shapes, same marks don't define certainly. Masons' marks of Apollon Temple, no matter which aim it had been made, show that more systematical distributions. Therefore Apollon Temple's marks can be defmied more certain than Artemis Temple's.57 İn investigations having been studied to show similarities and diffrences in between the temples,on everyeach temple, any similarities haven't been determined about masons' marks, except for setting techniques. The tecniques having been used on ancient buildings were following certain orders, so their similarities don't receives as facts showing relations in between buildings. On the otherhand, the investigation show that of some masons' marks on Artemis Temple will be able relations with marks of Didyma Apollo Temple and stores on upper agora in Miletos. İt is proving that, masons' marks will be able to established relations with different buildings, but complicating interpretation of marks. Because, in a like position, marks are able to identify masons, workshops or local riches got workers to buildings. Masons' marks being determined on temples of Apollon Smintheus and Artemis Leukophryene don't adduce proofs any relation in between the temples, but they have got special determination done. In this way, some masons' names worked on the temples (AHMOZ0ENEZ or AHMOKPITOZ ; AIOKAEZ and MENOC), workshops' and subcontractors' marks were determined and setting tecniques used on architectural blocks were reformed and restated. The study have appeared importance of masons' marks in archeology, how to benefit from masons' marks and which results will be able to get. 168

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    Authors: Ari, Öznur;

    ÖZET Çalışmamız Antik Yunan ve Roma mimarilerinde yuvarlak planlı tapınakları içermektedir. Yuvarlak planlı tapmakların yapılış amaçları, konumları ve çevresiyle ilişkilerinin araştırılmış, plan şemaları ve mimari elemanları incelenmiştir. Antik mimaride özel bir yeri olan yuvarlak planlı tapınaklardan kalan az sayıda örnek, pek çok antik yapı gibi yıkılmış, çoğu günümüze temel ya da podyum seviyesinde ulaşmışlardır. Antik döneme ait çeşitli ülkelerdeki onbeş yapı ile, Anadolu' daki dört yuvarlak planlı tapmak çalışmamızın kapsamı dahilindedir. Bu yapı grubunu tek başına ele alan bir kaynak bulmak zordur. Bu nedenle, Anadolu dışındaki yuvarlak planlı tapmak örnekleri için yapılan literatür araştırması bir katalog bilgisi halinde düzenlenmiş, bu yapıları birarada ve karşılaştırmalı olarak ele alma imkanı veren bir kaynak hazırlanmaya çalışılmıştır. Side Fortuna Tapınağı araştırmamız kapsamında üzerinde yoğunlaşılan yapıdır. Yapı elemanlarını `taş` olmaktan ve gelişi güzel yıkılmışlıktan kurtarmak, yapı içinde tanımlı bir yere getirmek, tespit-tasnif etmek ve tahribatı her an artan tapınağı, daha fazla tahrip olmadan belgelemek amaçlanmıştır. Tapınağa ait yapı parçalan üzerinde, 1/10, 1/5 ve 1/1 in-situ çizimleri yapılmış, bezeme ve profillerin 1/1 stampajları alınmıştır. Bu çalışma doğrultusunda yapının rölöve, restorasyon, restitüsyon ve anastylos çalışmaları gerçekleştirilmiştir. Perge agorasının ortasındaki yuvarlak planlı tapınak ve Side P (Men) Tapınakları için yerinde boyutsal analiz ve eleman araştırmaları yapılmıştır. Bergama Asklepion' undaki Zeus Asklepios Tapınağı' nın bugünkü durumu fotoğraflarla tespit edilmiş, yerinde saptamalar yapılmıştır. Anadolu'daki dört yapıda da yerinde yapılan çalışmalar fotoğraflı tespitlerle desteklenmiştir. Yuvarlak planlı tapmaklar üsluplar arasında bir geçiş niteliği taşımaktadırlar. Yapılar üzerinde iki ayrı düzeni barındırabilmektedirler. Bu tapınaklar arasında mimarlık tarihi için özel bir yere sahip yapılar bulunmaktadır. Örneğin Epidauros Tolosu korint sütun başlığının en olgun haliyle görüldüğü ilk yapıdır. Matter Matuta Tapmağı Roma'da ayakta kalan en eski mermer tapmaktır. Pantheon'un tunç kapısı boyutu bakımından bu konudaki en eski örnektir. Divus Romulus Tapınağı kirpi saçağın ilk kullanıldığı yapıdır. Roma mimarisinde görülmeye başlanan bu tapmak grubu daha çok peripteral plan şemasına sahip, giriş aksında merdiveni olan, sellalı, korint üslupta bir dış kolonada sahip, konik çatı ya da kubbe ile örtülü yapılardır.Yapıların ait olduğu dönemin ekonomik ve dini yapısı gibi sosyal verilerin yanısıra, teknolojik imkanlar ve yapım teknikleri gibi mimariyi doğrudan etkileyen veriler üzerinde de durulmuş, bu verilerin ışığı altında yapılar karşılaştırmalı olarak ele alınmıştır. vııı ABSTRACT Our work contains the Greek and Roman Temples with circular plans in antiquity. We researched on the reasons of architectural structure abaut circular planned temples, their settlement, relationship with the other environments, and examine their plan schemas and architectural elements. A few samples of these circular planned temples, which could reach today has a great importance for ancient architecture but they ruined like many other antique buildings and they continue their existance on base and podium levels. Fifteen structures in different countries and four circular planned temples in Anatolia from the antique period are in our area of interest. It is difficult to find a source which contains the data only about these circular buildings. For that reason, the literature research for the circular temples outside the Anatolian region was arranged in the form of a catalogue data, and aimed to prepare as a source to compare these buildings together. We have concantrated on Fortuna Temple in Side. To rescue the elements of the building from becoming `ordinary stones`, place and fix them into a determined place, and to get as much evidince as possible about the temple before it becomes a ruin. In-situ drawings in 1/10, 1/5 and 1/1 scales, have made of the temple elements, 1/1 stampages of ornments and profiles have been taken too. Under the lights of this work restoration, resituation, and anastyloses projects have performed. Dimensional analysis and elemental researchs have done for the circular-planned Temple in the middle of the Perge Agora, and Side P (Men) Temples. The phographs of Zeus Asklepios Temple in Bergama were taken and a reseach was done in the area. In all four temples in Anatolia during the work in the related places fix by the photographs too. Circular planned temples are is a bridge among different styles. These buildings may contain two separate styles on them. Among these Temples, some of them has a special importance for architectural history. For example in the Tholos of Epidorus; the best and earlier samples of corint capital can be seen. Matter Matutu Temple is the oldest marble temple in Italy which can stands up today. The bronze door of Pantheon is one of the oldest example with its dimensions. The eaves of Divilus Romulus temple is the first of its kind. Apeared in the roman architecture first, this temple group has a peripteral plan schema, stairs in the entrance, has a sella, an outer column in corint style, and covered with a conic style roof or a dome. In addition to the social data like religious an economic structure of that time, the research also contained technelogic possibilities and constraction technics which is directly related with the architecture. Under the light of these data the temples has been surveyed comparatively. IX 219

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    Authors: Rossetti, Ilaria;
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    https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctv1...
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      https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctv1...
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    Authors: Romano, Licia;
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    https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctvh...
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      https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctvh...
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    Authors: Krylova Severina Vyacheslavovna;

    This article shows the interdependences of territorial distribution of temples and their architectural-spatial and compositional features in St. Petersburg and the counties. The author revealed two different approaches to temple arrangement depending on the type of environment - in urban areas and rural areas. The construction of a temple in St. Petersburg was strictly regulated: its space-planning solution, accommodation, the place assigned for parish church, etc. The article draws attention to the particular choice of solutions, removal of land for construction, and certain architectural features of the temples. The author generally distinguishes four types of space-planning decisions of religious buildings: hall multiplex (The Basilica) in the form of a Latin cross, centric (cross dome as the most common types of churches), combined. In turn, these types of temples were correlated with various types of accommodation identified by the author. Spatial distribution of temples include: a) the location of temples in the natural landscape system and b) with respect to the location of the man-made temples' environment (historical and cultural), in correlation with the buildings and / or communications (land and water communications), c) the formation of a spatially-visual network (system) of the city and surrounding area. For a better understanding of the revealed dependences chronological phase analysis was used, since the time prior to Saint Petersburg construction and till 1850. The periodization of temple architecture development during 1703-1850 was identified. The period before Saint Petersburg was also considered, though less detailed. The stages are minimal chronological segments, within which settlement system was unified by spatial and social characteristics, as well as uniform rules of specific territorial, economic and social development. As chronological boundaries, specific dates of the events were identified, which determined the transition to new stages. This approach allowed to gradually track changes in the methods of selecting and placing three-dimensional solution of various temples. The studies revealed that the temple was a member of the system, which includes urban development, individual settlements and their groups, the natural landscape. They were all interrelated, representing the idea of continuity, harmony with each other and the environment (natural and manmade). Such an organic fusion of church and surroundings have a mutual influence: the temple on the environment and the environment on the object.

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    Article . 2014
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    Authors: Borgia, Emanuela;
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    Authors: Gökce, Fuat;

    ÖZET Apollo Smintheus Tapınağı Biga Yanmasın in güneybatı ucunda, Çanakkale İli sınırlan içinde, Gülpınar beldesindedir. Yapı, beldenin kuzey eteklerinde `bahçeleriçi` olarak adlandırılan bölgede, yörenin en zengin kaynaklarının hemen yanında bulunmaktadır. Yapının bu alanda konumlanmasının en önemli nedenlerinden biri de Apollon kültü için önemli öğelerden biri olan su kaynağının bu noktada bulunmasıdır. Tapmak ilk olarak Jean Baptista Le Chevalier tarafından Babakale'den Aleksandria Troas'a seyahati sırasında tespit edilmiş ve bilim dünyasına duyurmuştur. 1853 yılında bölgeye harita çahşmalan için gelen Spratt bulduğu bir yazıt sayesinde yapının Apollo Smintheus kültüne ait olduğunu tespit etmiştir. 1861 yılında yöreye gelen ve kalıntılan inceleyen R.P. Pullan, 1866 yılında iki ay süreyle kazı çahşmalan yürütmüş ve yapı ile ilgili bulgularım yayınlayarak temel mimari niteliklerini bilim dünyasına tanıtmıştır. 1980 yılından buyana Prof Dr. Coşkun özgünel başkanlığında yürütülen kazılar, çeşitli mesleklerden bilim adamlarını, uzmanlan ve öğrencileri biraraya getirmiş, yürütülen disiplinlerarası çalışmalar tapınağın birçok özelliğinin tespit edilebilmesini ve bilim dünyasına duyurulmasını sağlamıştır. Çalışmalar sonunda yapı koruma altma alınmış, onarılmış ve çevre düzeni yapılmıştır. Apollon Smintheus tapınağı mimari ve bezeme nitelikleriyle Hellenistik dönem yapılan içinde özel bir öneme sahiptir.Yapının temelleri üç katmanlıdır. Birinci katman yörede en kolay bulunan yapı malzemelerinden biri olan tüf ile inşa edilmiştir. Onun üzerindeki katman ise andezit olup en üst katmanda mermer kullanılmıştır. Tapınağın onbir basamaklı merdivenleri dahil, görünen tüm yüzeyleri mermerdir. Tapınak pseudo-dipteros düzenindedir. Kısa kenarlarında sekizer, uzun kenarlarında ise ondörder adet sütun bulunmaktadır. Cella binası ise derin bir pronaos, naos ve çok sığ bir ophistodomos'dan oluşmaktadır. Sütunlar bir kaide, yedi adet sütun tamburu ve ionik düzende bir başlıktan oluşmaktadır. Sütunların yedinci tamburları İliada destanından sahnelerin betimlendiği ya da girland- bukranion motifli yüksek kabartmalara sahiptir. Yapının bu özelliği Hellenistik dönem içinde tek örnektir. Üstyapı, zengin süslemelere sahip arşitravlar ile başlamaktadır. Friz bandı, İliada destanının betimlendiği yüksek kabartmalara sahip olup, tapınak mimarisi içinde tek örnektir. Üstyapı diş sırası, geison ve sima elemanları ile tamamlanmaktadır. Tapınağın mimarı ve yaptıranı bilinmemektedir. Bu çalışma, esas olarak tapınağın yapım sistemlerini, inşaat detaylarım ve mimari niteliklerini incelemeyi amaçlamaktadır. SUMMARY The temple of Apollo Smintheus is situated in the south-west corner of Biga Peninsula. It is within the boundaries of the city of Çanakkale and in the municipality of Gülpınar which was called `Külahlı` until 1920's. The temple is located in the garden plot of the town which is nourished by spring waters. This could be the reason why the temple was erected in this site since spring water is needed for Apollon Cult. The temple was first made known to the world of archaeology by Jean Baptista Le Chevalier in 1785 when he saw some remains of the temple as he was travelling from Lectum-Babakale to Alexandria Troas. In 1853 English Admiral R.N. Spratt visited the site as he was working on the cartography of the environs. He recognized the building as the sacred place of Apollo in the ionic order. According to an inscription he announced the temple as relating to the cult of Smintheus(mouse). After Spratt, R.P. Pullan visited this area in 1861 and started excavations in 1866. His excavation was sponsored by the Society of Diletantti. Since 1980, the systematic excavations, restoration and presentation work are carried out by a team including many specialists and students under the direction of ProfDr. Coşkun Özgünel.The temple of Apollo Smintheus from Hellenistic Age (B.C. 330-30) draws attention because of its architectural design, its style and its ornamentation depicting scenes from Iliad. It is a unique example constructed in B.C. 125-150 in Ionic order discovered until present time in Troad. It has a pseudo-dipteral plan which was widespreaded in Hellenistic Age of which outstanding architect Hermogenes was thought to be the `inventor` of this plan arrangement. The temple of Apollo Smintheus had 8 columns on front and backsides and 14 columns on long sides. Three different elements were used in its substructure. The foundation was built of volcanic tufa blocks which were specific for the environs. On top, the andesite blocks were used. Then the stylobate and eleven steps were covered by marble at the upper surface. The sacred area was composed of three rooms: namely pronaos, naos and opisthodomos. The colums of the temple were composed of a base, seven drums and an ionic capital The seventh drum of the column (columna caelata) was ornamented by bukranion (bull's head and girlands) or by mythological figures which is unique. The superstructure (entablature) consisted of architrave (ornamented with egg-and- tongue, bead-and-reel motifs) and the frieze which is ornamented with Iliad scenes.The mythological events which were depicted on the reliefs of the temple is unique in the world of archaeology. Dentils, geison and sima respectively complete the superstructure. The architect and the founder are unknown until the present time. This study mainly deals with the construction systems, structural details and architectural features of the temple. 178

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    Authors: Erdoğan, Aytekin;

    Bu çalışma içerisinde Phokaia kentinin farklı bölgelerinde yer alan kaya kutsal alanlarının tanımlanması, tarihlendirilmesi ve içerisinde tapım gören tanrı ve tanrıçaların belirlenmesine çalışılır. Phokaia antik kenti içerisinde çok sayıda kaya kutsal alanı bulunur. Bu kaya kutsal alanları kent içerisinde farklı bölgelerde Değirmenli Tepe ve Altımağarası Tepesi -, adalarda -İncir Adası ve Orak Adası- ve kent dışında -Taş Kule ve Yeniköy- yer alır. Kent içerisindeki kaya kutsal alanları yerleşim alanından uzakta-, kent duvarlarına yakın alanlarda ve deniz kenarındadır. Kutsal alanların tamamı kayalık alanlar üzerindedir ve bir ya da daha fazla sayıda tapınım alanından oluşur. Tapınım alanları içerisinde kayanın düzeltilmesiyle oluşturulan nişler, sunu alanları, kaya çanakları, sıvı sunu kanalları ve düzeltilmiş alanlar bulunur. Phokaia dinsel yaşamı içerisinde yer alan tanrı ve tanrıçaların bir bölümü sahip oldukları kült özellikleri nedeniyle kaya kutsal alanları ile ilişkilendirilir. Ana Tanrıça- Kybele, Zeus, Poseidon Apollon, Aphrodit, Dionysos bu tanrılar arasındadır. Kültü kesin olarak belirlenmiş tek tanrıça Kybele'dir. Kaya kutsal alanlarının kent içerisindeki konumu, nişler içerisindeki kabartmalar, kazı buluntuları, yazıtlar ve Phokaia kolonilerinde görülen Ana Tanrıça-Kybele tapımının ana kentten gitmiş olduğunun anlaşılması gibi sonuçlar da kentte yoğun bir Ana Tanrıça tapınımı olduğunu gösterir. Tanrıça kentte bilinen kült yapısına uygun olarak yalnızca yüksek tepeler üzerinde değil, aynı zamanda deniz kenarındaki kaya kutsal alanları içerisinde de tapım görür. Kaya kutsal alanları Arkaik Dönem'den başlayan ve Roma Dönemi'ne kadar devam eden uzun bir süreç içerisinde kullanılmıştır. Anadolu'da, Adalar'da, Yunanistan'da, Güney İtalya ve Sicilya'da bu kaya kutsal alanlarının benzer örnekleri vardır. Buna karşın yalnızca Phokaia kaya kutsal alanlarına özgü olan ve benzer örneğine rastlanmayan bazı uygulamalar da söz konusudur. Bu farklı uygulamalar nedeniyle Phokaia Kaya Kutsal Alanları benzer örnekleri içerisinde ayrı bir yere sahiptir. This dissertation includes the descriptions and dating of the rock-cut sanctuaries found in different parts of the ancient city of Phokaia as well as the determination of gods and goddesses that were worshipped in. There are numerous rock-cut sanctuaries found in Phokaia. These are located at different sections of the city such as Değirmenli Tepe, Altınmağarası Tepesi and Harbour Area, on the islands of İncir and Orak and out of the city where Taş Kule and Yeniköy are present. These rock-cut sanctuaries were built away from the center of the settlements near to the city walls or by the seaside. All of the sanctuaries are situated in rocky areas and consist of one or more parts. Rock-cut niches, adoration sections, rock hollows and libation channels are the basic parts of a rock-cut sanctuary. Due to the cultic properties of the gods and goddesses found in the religious world of Phokaia, some deities were seen in relation with the sanctuaries. The Mother Goddess- Kybele, Leukothea, Zeus, Poseidon, Apollon, Aphrodite, Dionysos and Artemis are accepted as the primary ones among those deities. Kybele is the only goddess whose cult has been determined for certain. On the basis of the location of the rock-cut sanctuaries, the reliefs found in niches, the excavation artifacts, the inscriptions and the worship of Kybele carried out in the colonies of Phokaia which was derived from the main city, it might be claimed that the worship for Mother Goddess was extensively seen in the city of Phokaia. However, Kybele maintained her religious importance in Phokaia not only in high hills but also in rock- cut sanctuaries at seaside. The rock-cut sanctuaries in Phokaia were in use a long time range between Archaic and Roman periods. Similar specimens of these are attested in Anatolia, Kyklades, Greece, South Italy and Sicily. However, some applications peculiar to only Phokaian sanctuaries make them original among their parallels. 919

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  • Authors: Supot Chittasutthiyan;
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    Authors: Rui Gao;

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