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  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Jaadla, Hannaliis; Shaw-Taylor, Leigh; Davenport, Romola;

    Adult stature has become a widely used indicator of childhood nutritional status in historical populations and may provide insights into health inequalities that are not discernible in mortality rates. However, most pre-twentieth-century British data on heights suffer from selection biases. Here we present unique evidence on heights of adult males by occupation from an unbiased sample of adult males in Dorset in 1798-99. The mean height of fully grown (married) men was very similar to that of older military recruits, and our sample therefore confirms the taller stature of English males relative to males of other European countries in the same period. In contrast to previous evidence of negligible or U-shaped socio-economic gradients in mortality in this period, we found a fairly linear gradient in height by socio-economic status, that is similar in magnitude to class differences in adult height among English males born in the mid-twentieth century.Supplementary material for this article is available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/00324728.2020.1823011.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Apollo
    Other literature type . 2021
    Data sources: Apollo
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    Apollo
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: Datacite
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    Population Studies
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Population Studies
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2020
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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      Apollo
      Other literature type . 2021
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      Apollo
      Article . 2020
      Data sources: Datacite
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      Population Studies
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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      Population Studies
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    Authors: Chulhee Lee;

    This article investigates patterns of socioeconomic difference in the wartime morbidity and mortality of black Union soldiers during the American Civil War. Among the factors that contributed to lower probabilities of contracting and dying of disease were lighter skin color, a nonfield occupation, residence on a large plantation, and residence in a rural area prior to enlistment. Patterns of disease-specific mortality and timing of death suggest that the differences in the development of immunity to disease and in nutritional status prior to enlistment were responsible for the observed socioeconomic differences in wartime health. For example, the advantages of light-skinned soldiers over dark-skinned and of enlisted men formerly engaged in nonfield occupations over field hands resulted from differences in nutritional status. The lower wartime mortality of ex-slaves from large plantations can be explained by their better-developed immunity and superior nutritional status. The results of this article suggest that there were substantial disparities in the health of the slave population on the eve of the Civil War.

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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Social Science History
    Article . 2009 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Cambridge Core User Agreement
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    Social Science History
    Article . 2009 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Social Science History
      Article . 2009 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2009 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Hamon, Caroline; Le Gall, Valérie;

    International audience; The central role of grinding activities in the dietary practices of traditional agricultural populations can be approached from an ethnoarchaeological point of view. The comparison of ethnographic references raises the question whether the function and the socioeconomic context in which grinding slabs are used allow to assess issues related to conclusions drawn from archaeological contexts. Our discussion is based on the analysis of the manufacturing of grinding slabs, their use cycles and their social status in several Minyanka villages (Mali), providing useful references when examining the way in which archaeologists explain and interpret technological, functional and spatial observations. The typological and technical evolution and variability of querns results from a combination of several factors determined by the available raw materials, the skill of shaping techniques, the organisation of manufacturing and the transference of the function of grinding tools. But these factors alone cannot explain the encountered range of variation. Our study thus emphasises the very role of cultural aspects within these temporal and regional developments, and the impossibility of dissociating the use of a quern from its socio-economic context.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal of Anthropol...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Journal of Anthropological Archaeology
    Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Attila Bartók; Anna-Mária Csergő; Ödön Balázs; Bogdan-Iuliu Hurdu; +1 Authors

    A Frivaldszky-bibircsvirág a Délkeleti-Kárpátok orchideaflórájának egyik ritkasága, amelynek fajneve híres Balkán kutatónk, Frivaldszky Imre (1799–1870) emlékét őrzi. Hegyvidéki lápokon, vízszivárgós, üde helyeken fordul elő a Balkán-félsziget hegyvidékein (Bulgária, Románia, Görögország, Macedónia, Montenegró, Albánia). A fajra a Kárpátokban először Heuffel János bukkant rá a Szárkő-hegységben. Habár a fajt Simonkai 1874-ben gyűjtötte a Retyezátban (Zenóga- és Bukura-tó), a példánya (BP33967) azonosságában bizonytalan volt, ezért az a halvány bibircsvirág (Gymnadenia albida) alá sorolva szerepel monográfiájában. Azóta több helyről előkerült a Retyezátból, így a Peleaga-havasról, a Zănoaga-, Zănoguţa-, Ana- és Bucura-tavak mellől és a Judele-völgyből, továbbá a Szárkő-hegység egy-két pontjáról is. Az utolsó szerzőnek a faj egy öt évtizeddel korábbi, csupán egy fitocönológiai tabellában dokumentált előfordulását sikerült megerősítenie a Hargita hegységben (Keleti-Kárpátok). Ez a lelőhely a faj areájának északi határán helyezkedik el, ezért növényföldrajzi szempontból igazán fontos adat. A közlemény bemutatja a faj felfedezésének történetét és jelenleg ismert elterjedését és veszélyeztetettségi státuszát a Kárpátokban, továbbá a Hargita hegységi élőhelyét.

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    Kitaibelia
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      Kitaibelia
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      Kitaibelia
      Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Thompson, Paul B.;

    Sandler provides a sharp and concise introductory overview of recent controversies over the structure, management, and consequences of the global food system, including perspectives that challenge the very idea of a global food system. On the one hand, the term Bfood ethics^ refers to Sandler’s focus on goals and rationales for methods and technologies of food production and their systematic organization through global exchange relations. On the other hand, food ethics is an idea promoted by activists who advocate dietary change and moral rationales for food consumption decisions. In this latter sense, food ethics challenges the dominant systems of food production and distribution. BAs the term is used in this book,^ Sandler writes, Ba food issue is any contested aspect of the life cycle of food: agriculture and capture, processing, manufacture, distribution, transportation, preparation, consumption and disposal.^ Food ethics is a review of the various arguments that are put forward to advocate for alternative approaches to food issues. Sandler’s approach takes due notice of the arguments made by critics of the status quo, but also recognizes arguments made by scientists and others who support it. Sandler covers topics such as food security, the diet-health relationship, vegetarianism, the debate over genetically engineered agricultural crops and livestock, and more general questions concerning the relationship between food and culture. The book is organized with separate chapters on each of these subjects. Sandler suggests that readers will find it helpful to think these topics as embedded within a more comprehensive debate over the structure of the global food system. The book thus begins with a thorough discussion of food systems: networks and processes that produce, process, and distribute the food we eat. Sandler notes that while a few regions remain isolated, we now have a global food system characterized by economic integration, large and powerful actors, mechanization and continuous innovation, highly capitalized infrastructure, and commodification: goods are highly fungible within the global system and valued in terms of monetized exchange. Sandler goes on to note that many of the food issues that spark protest and disagreement emphasize practices that have their origins in the global scope of our current food system, and in the way that costs and harms associated with it are externalized or imposed upon economically weak actors who do not have the power or wealth to resist. Sandler notes that arguments supporting the current structure stress the need for continuously increasing the amount of food produced on a global basis in order to compete with population growth. These arguments also recognize imperatives to conserve water and energy and to maintain uncultivated ecosystems for biodiversity conservation and often stress that such goals only make it more important to use resources dedicated to food production as efficiently as possible. In opposition, critics stress the way that putative efficiencies achieved by technological innovation neglect costs that are born by people who do not have the wealth to command adequate supplies of nutritious and culturally appropriate food, or by farmworkers and other food system employees whose wages consign them to poverty. Critics also argue that the global food system emphasizes short run efficiencies that do not fully account for environmental impacts, especially when the full cost of these impacts will not be felt until sometime in the future. He then describes proposed alternatives to the global food system such as emphasizing local or organic production, as well as urban consumer movements such as * Paul B. Thompson thom@anr.msu.edu

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    Review of Agricultural Food and Environmental Studies
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      Review of Agricultural Food and Environmental Studies
      Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Le Bras-Goude, Gwenaëlle; Herrscher, Estelle; Vaquer, Jean;

    International audience; The aim of this study is to reconstruct the dietary patterns and economic behaviours of Neolithic populations in the Northwestern Mediterranean using isotopic and archaeological data. Burials come from four sites located in Languedoc–Roussillon region in French Mediterranean area. These sites are dated from the Middle Neolithic period (ca. 4500–3500 BC). They represent the Chasséen culture, characterized by regional features, such as economy management, resulting from territorial control. For this investigation, a stable isotopes (d13C and d15N) method has been used on 50 human bone collagens and 28 associated animal bones. This method provides direct dietary information on the protein consumed including the relative amounts of marine vs. terrestrial and animal vs. plant proteins in diets. Isotopic results are mainly compared to archaeological data to understand economic distinctions and potential social status variations between different groups using specific funeral practices, i.e. lithic chamber graves vs. domestic/funeral pits. Results show that individuals buried in lithic chamber graves and those buried in pits did not have the same dietary pattern. This result suggests a possible differentiation between two socioeconomic groups, i.e. consumers of resources from herding and from farming. No aquatic food appeared to be routinely consumed by these individuals despite a relative close proximity to sea and freshwater sources. Moreover, these outcomes lead us to hypothesize that: (1) funeral practices could be linked to specific economies and/or (2) to different social status and that (3) burial type and foodstuff could be an expression of religious worship. Further research could include data from other areas, such as Spanish Catalonia where there are funeral structures similar to Languedoc lithic chamber graves.

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    Journal of Anthropological Archaeology
    Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Morgan Kelly; Cormac Ó Gráda;

    Carefully constructed but fallible historical estimates of GDP and agricultural output inform our understanding of the preindustrial origins of economic growth. Here we review four recent attempts at estimating agricultural output and food availability in England and Wales at different points between the Middle Ages and the Industrial Revolution. We highlight their contrasting implications for trends in well-being and nutritional status over time. Building on these estimates, we propose our own tentative, compromise estimate of food availability. The compromise estimates are more coherent with our understanding of conditions before and during the Industrial Revolution.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao The Journal of Econo...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    The Journal of Economic History
    Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao The Journal of Econo...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      The Journal of Economic History
      Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ganzarolli, Giovanna; Alexander, Michelle; Chavarria Arnau, Alexandra; Craig, Oliver;

    International audience; Millets have been cultivated in Europe since the Late Neolithic but, beyond recording their presence, little is known about their use and context of consumption. As a C4 plant, the contribution of millet on diet can be readily identified through stable isotope analysis of human bones. Using this approach, however, previous studies have been unable to distinguish direct consumption of the cereal from the consumption of millet fed animals. Historical evidence suggests that the latter was common practice. To address this issue, we present the first direct evidence for millet consumption in Medieval period using organic residue analysis. Lipid were extracted from 45 pottery vessels from the Episcopal centre in Padua, Northern Italy dating from the 6th to 10th centuries AD. Miliacin, a biomarker for broomcorn millet, was present in many of the cooking vessels tested. Based on the co-occurrence of miliacin with other food derived lipids and the vessel typologies, we suggest that millet was a common culinary ingredient during the Early Medieval period in this region. The earliest evidence dates to the 6th c. AD and notably derives from deposits associated with high status occupation of the site, a surprising result given the common association of these crops as low-status or starvation foods in the historic periods. It is likely that millet was a common cereal staple in human diet during this period in North-eastern Italy and that its use was far less restricted than previously thought. More broadly, our study highlights the efficacy of combining organic residue analysis and stable isotope analysis of bone to relate culinary and dietary information of ancient populations.

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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Journal of Archaeological Science
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Journal of Archaeological Science
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Cormac Ó Gráda;

    Ireland on the eve of the Great Famine was a poor and backward economy. The Great Irish Famine of the 1840s is accordingly often considered the classic example of Malthusian population economics in action. However, unlike most historical famines, the Great Famine was not the product of a harvest shortfall, but of a major ecological disaster. Because there could be no return to thestatus quo ante, textbook famine relief in the form of public works or food aid was not enough. Fortunately, in an era of open borders mass emigration helped contain excess mortality, subject to the limitation that the very poorest could not afford to leave. In general, the authorities did not countenance publicly assisted migration. This article discusses the lessons to be learned from two exceptional schemes for assisting destitute emigrants during and in the wake of the famine.

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    The Journal of Economic History
    Article
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    The Journal of Economic History
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ The Journal of Econo...arrow_drop_down
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      The Journal of Economic History
      Article
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      The Journal of Economic History
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Nolet, Émilie;

    Fidji est un pays mélanésien qui a la particularité d’avoir vu arriver, à partir de 1879, plusieurs vagues de migrants originaires d’Inde. Les relations de la communauté mélanésienne (autochtone) et des Indo-Fidjiens ont été marquées par de fortes tensions, aboutissant à quatre coups d’État entre 1987 et 2006. Par ailleurs, Fidji compte au nombre des pays océaniens où un système de chefferies coexiste avec l’État mis en place durant la période coloniale (1874-1970). En plus de l’autorité qu’ils ont dans les territoires coutumiers (vanua), les chefs fidjiens ont été étroitement associés aux affaires nationales depuis la cession du pays à la Grande-Bretagne, notamment au travers du grand conseil des chefs, créé par le pouvoir colonial. Depuis une vingtaine d’années, des voix se sont toutefois élevées en faveur d’une plus grande dissociation des deux sphères politiques fidjiennes. En avril 2007, le gouvernement issu du coup d’État de décembre 2006 alla jusqu’à interdire les réunions du grand conseil des chefs, en suggérant que les chefs étaient devenus des obstacles à l’édification d’une nation multiethnique et à la stabilité politique. Cette décision fut désapprouvée par une partie des Mélanésiens qui dénonça un comportement irrespectueux vis-à-vis des chefs et parla d’une mise en danger de ses droits et de son identité culturelle. Dans ce contexte, cet article cherche à comprendre comment les débats relatifs au rôle national mais aussi local des chefs peuvent concrètement s’exprimer dans une chefferie fidjienne (vanua), dans la province de Rewa située au sud-est de la grande île de Viti Levu. Fiji is a Melanesian country where several waves of migrants of Indian origin have arrived since 1879. The relationships between the Melanesian (indigenous) and Indo-Fijian communities have been marked by strong tensions leading to four coups d’État between 1987 and 2006. Moreover, in Fiji, like in some other Pacific countries, a traditional political system coexists with the State that was set up during the colonial period (1874-1970). Besides their authority within customary territories (vanua), Fijian chiefs have been strongly involved with national affairs since the Deed of Cession of Fiji to Great-Britain, notably through the Great Council of Chiefs (which was created by colonial powers). However, for about twenty years, inhabitants have been asking for a greater dissociation of both Fijian political spheres. In April 2007, the government that seized power in a coup d’État in 2006 went as far as forbidding the Great Council of Chiefs’ meetings. Authorities suggested that chiefs had become obstacles for the building of a multicultural nation and political stability in Fiji. However this decision was disapproved by some Melanesians, who denounced a disrespectful attitude towards their traditional leaders and considered that their cultural identity and rights were endangered. In such context, this article investigates how inhabitants of a Fijian vanua apprehend the role of chiefs at both local and national levels. I study the case of Rewa province, which is localized in the South-Eastern part of the large island of Viti Levu.

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    OpenEdition
    Article . 2012
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    Journal de la Société des océanistes
    Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Jaadla, Hannaliis; Shaw-Taylor, Leigh; Davenport, Romola;

    Adult stature has become a widely used indicator of childhood nutritional status in historical populations and may provide insights into health inequalities that are not discernible in mortality rates. However, most pre-twentieth-century British data on heights suffer from selection biases. Here we present unique evidence on heights of adult males by occupation from an unbiased sample of adult males in Dorset in 1798-99. The mean height of fully grown (married) men was very similar to that of older military recruits, and our sample therefore confirms the taller stature of English males relative to males of other European countries in the same period. In contrast to previous evidence of negligible or U-shaped socio-economic gradients in mortality in this period, we found a fairly linear gradient in height by socio-economic status, that is similar in magnitude to class differences in adult height among English males born in the mid-twentieth century.Supplementary material for this article is available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/00324728.2020.1823011.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Other literature type . 2021
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    Apollo
    Article . 2020
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    Population Studies
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Population Studies
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2020
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      Other literature type . 2021
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      Apollo
      Article . 2020
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      Population Studies
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      Population Studies
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    Authors: Chulhee Lee;

    This article investigates patterns of socioeconomic difference in the wartime morbidity and mortality of black Union soldiers during the American Civil War. Among the factors that contributed to lower probabilities of contracting and dying of disease were lighter skin color, a nonfield occupation, residence on a large plantation, and residence in a rural area prior to enlistment. Patterns of disease-specific mortality and timing of death suggest that the differences in the development of immunity to disease and in nutritional status prior to enlistment were responsible for the observed socioeconomic differences in wartime health. For example, the advantages of light-skinned soldiers over dark-skinned and of enlisted men formerly engaged in nonfield occupations over field hands resulted from differences in nutritional status. The lower wartime mortality of ex-slaves from large plantations can be explained by their better-developed immunity and superior nutritional status. The results of this article suggest that there were substantial disparities in the health of the slave population on the eve of the Civil War.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Social Science Histo...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Social Science History
    Article . 2009 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Cambridge Core User Agreement
    Data sources: Crossref
    Social Science History
    Article . 2009 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Social Science Histo...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Social Science History
      Article . 2009 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Cambridge Core User Agreement
      Data sources: Crossref
      Social Science History
      Article . 2009 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Crossref
      addClaim

      This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

      You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.
  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Hamon, Caroline; Le Gall, Valérie;

    International audience; The central role of grinding activities in the dietary practices of traditional agricultural populations can be approached from an ethnoarchaeological point of view. The comparison of ethnographic references raises the question whether the function and the socioeconomic context in which grinding slabs are used allow to assess issues related to conclusions drawn from archaeological contexts. Our discussion is based on the analysis of the manufacturing of grinding slabs, their use cycles and their social status in several Minyanka villages (Mali), providing useful references when examining the way in which archaeologists explain and interpret technological, functional and spatial observations. The typological and technical evolution and variability of querns results from a combination of several factors determined by the available raw materials, the skill of shaping techniques, the organisation of manufacturing and the transference of the function of grinding tools. But these factors alone cannot explain the encountered range of variation. Our study thus emphasises the very role of cultural aspects within these temporal and regional developments, and the impossibility of dissociating the use of a quern from its socio-economic context.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal of Anthropol...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Journal of Anthropological Archaeology
    Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
    Data sources: Crossref