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  • Authors: Ryff, Carol; Almeida, David M.; Ayanian, John; Carr, Deborah S.; +14 Authors

    In 1995-1996, the MacArthur Midlife Research Network carried out a national survey of 7,108 Americans aged 25 to 74 (MIDLIFE IN THE UNITED STATES (MIDUS), 1995-1996 [ICPSR 2760]). The purpose of the study was to investigate the role of behavioral, psychological, and social factors in understanding age-related differences in physical and mental health. The study was innovative for its broad scientific scope, its diverse samples (which included twins and the siblings of main sample respondents), and its creative use of in-depth assessments in key areas (e.g., daily stress and cognitive functioning). A description of the study and findings from it are available at http://www.midus.wisc.edu. With support from the National Institute on Aging, a longitudinal follow-up of the original MIDUS samples: core sample (N = 3,487), metropolitan over-samples (N = 757), twins (N = 925 complete pairs), and siblings (N = 950), was conducted in 2004-2006. Guiding hypotheses for it, at the most general level, were that behavioral and psychosocial factors are consequential for physical and mental health. MIDUS II respondents were aged 35 to 86. Data collection largely repeated baseline assessments (e.g., phone interview and extensive self-administered questionnaire), with additional questions in selected areas (e.g., cognitive functioning, optimism and coping, stressful life events, and caregiving). To add refinements to MIDUS II, an African American sample (N = 592) was recruited from Milwaukee, Wisconsin, who participated in a personal interview and completed a questionnaire paralleling the above assessments. Also administered was a modified form of the mail questionnaire, via telephone, to respondents who did not complete a self-administered questionnaire. audio computer-assisted self interview (ACASI), computer-assisted personal interview (CAPI), computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI), mail questionnaire, telephone interview The data in this collection can be linked to the following MIDUS studies by using the variable M2ID: ICPSR 2760, 22840, 25281, 26841, 28683, and 29282.The missing value assignments for the following variables have been reduced from 9-10 digits in length to a maximum of 8 digits in length due to a limitation in Stata: B1SG17A, B1SG18A, B1SG18B, B1SG19A, B1SG21B, BASG22A, B1SG24A, B1SG25A, B1SG25B, B1SG25C, B1SG25D, B1SG25E, B1SG25F, B1SG25G, B1SG25H, AND B1SG25I.The DDI codebook (PDF file) and the XML file (contained in a zip package) released by ICPSR were provided by MIDUS and were not changed in any way by ICPSR. These original files do not reflect any of the processing done by ICPSR.The online analysis (SDA) file is a merged file comprised of the four datasets within this data collection. The files were merged using the variable M2ID. Users of this merged file should review the information in the "Documentation of Post-stratification Weights Created at MIDUS II," available through the ICPSR and NACDA Web sites, prior to analysis.A document pertaining to the naming conventions for this study has been added to the collection.The title of this study was changed from National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS II), 2004-2006, to Midlife in the United States (MIDUS 2), 2004-2006, on May 9, 2017. The respondents to this study were first interviewed as part of the NATIONAL SURVEY OF MIDLIFE DEVELOPMENT IN THE UNITED STATES (MIDUS), 1995-1996 (ICPSR 2760). MIDUS was based on a nationally representative random-digit-dial (RDD) sample of noninstitutionalized, English-speaking adults, aged 25 to 74, selected from working telephone banks in the coterminous United States. Predesignated households were selected in random replicates, one-fourth of which included a special nonrespondent incentive component. Contact persons were informed that the survey was being carried out through the Harvard Medical School and that it was designed to study health and well-being during the middle years of life. After explaining the study to the informant, a household listing was generated of people in the age range of 25 to 74, and a random respondent was selected. Oversampling of older people and men was achieved by varying the probability of carrying out the interview at this stage as a joint function of the age and sex of the randomly selected respondent. No other person in the household was selected if the respondent did not complete the interview. There was no additional sampling of cases for the longitudinal component of MIDUS II -- it was a follow-up study and attempted to recontact original MIDUS participants. More information about the MIDUS II sample can be found in the document "Descriptions of MIDUS Samples," available for download through the ICPSR and NACDA Web sites. ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Standardized missing values.; Created online analysis version with question text.; Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.. Response Rates: Detailed information regarding the response rates for various aspects of the MIDUS II data collection is located in the following documents: "Descriptions of MIDUS Samples" and "Field Report for MIDUS II Longitudinal Sample." These documents are available for download through the ICPSR and NACDA Web sites. Presence of Common Scales: See the document "Documentation of Psychosocial Constructs and Composite Variables in MIDUS II Project 1" available through the ICPSR and NACDA Web sites for complete information regarding the scales for the MIDUS II data collection. Datasets: DS0: Study-Level Files DS1: M2_P1_Aggregate Data DS2: M2_P1_Disposition Codes DS3: M2_P1_Main Weights Data DS4: M2_P1_Coded Text Data The noninstitutionalized, English-speaking population of the United States. Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) Series

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  • The Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) is a collaborative, interdisciplinary investigation of patterns, predictors, and consequences of midlife development in the areas of physical health, psychological well-being, and social responsibility. A description of the study and findings from it are available at http://www.midus.wisc.edu. The first wave of the MIDUS study (MIDUS 1 or M1) collected survey data from a total of 7,108 participants. The baseline sample was comprised of individuals from four subsamples: (1) a national RDD (random digit dialing) sample (n=3,487); (2) oversamples from five metropolitan areas in the U.S. (n=757); (3) siblings of individuals from the RDD sample (n=950); and (4) a national RDD sample of twin pairs (n=1,914). All eligible participants were non-institutionalized, English-speaking adults in the coterminous United States, aged 25 to 74. Data from the samples were collected primarily in 1995/96. The survey (Project 1) dataset contains responses from a 30-minute Phone interview and two 50-page Self-Administered Questionnaire (SAQ) instruments. Of the 7,108 respondents who completed the Phone interview, 6,325 also completed the SAQ. This updated version of the study is comprised of three primary datasets: Dataset 1, Main, Siblings, and Twin Data, contains responses from the main survey of 7,108 respondents. Respondents were asked to provide extensive information on their physical and mental health throughout their adult lives, and to assess the ways in which their lifestyles, including relationships and work-related demands, contributed to the conditions experienced. Those queried were asked to describe their histories of physical ailments, including heart-related conditions and cancer, as well as the treatment and/or lifestyle changes they went through as a result. A series of questions addressed alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug use, and focused on history of use, regularity of use, attempts to quit, and how the use of those substances affected respondents' physical and mental well-being. Additional questions addressed respondents' sense of control over their health, their awareness of changes in their medical conditions, commitment to regular exercise and a healthy diet, experience with menopause, the decision-making process used to deal with health concerns, experiences with nontraditional remedies or therapies, and history of attending support groups. Respondents were asked to compare their overall well-being with that of their peers and to describe social, physical, and emotional characteristics typical of adults in their 20's, 40's, and 60's. Information on the work histories of respondents and their significant others was also elicited, with items covering the nature of their occupations, work-related physical and emotional demands, and how their personal health had correlated to their jobs. An additional series of questions focusing on childhood queried respondents regarding the presence/absence of their parents, religion, rules/punishments, love/affection, physical/verbal abuse, and the quality of their relationships with their parents and siblings. Respondents were also asked to consider their personal feelings of accomplishment, desire to learn, sense of control over their lives, interests, and hopes for the future. The Datasets previously numbered 2 and 3 have been removed to avoid redundancies, and all datasets have been renumbered. Please refer to the readme file. Dataset 2, Twin Screener Data, provides the first national sample of twin pairs ascertained randomly via the telephone. Dataset 3, Coded Text Responses, describes how open-ended textual responses in the MIDUS 1 Computer-Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI) and Self-Administered Questionnaire (SAQ) were transformed into categorical numeric codes. These codes are included in a stand-alone dataset containing only those cases (N=3,950) that contained text data in their responses. Online Analysis Only: Datasets 1, 2, and 3 were merged together by the SU_ID variable to form "Merged Data with Weights (Online Analysis Only)" (Dataset 4) for online analysis capabilities. MIDUS also maintains a Colectica portal, which allows users to interact with variables across waves and create customized subsets. Registration is required. ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Created online analysis version with question text.; Performed recodes and/or calculated derived variables.; Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.. Presence of Common Scales: Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) Scale; Somatic Amplification Scale; The Alcohol Screening Test; The Conflict Tactics (CT) Scales; The Revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2); Loyola Generativity Scale (LGS); Many scales were constructed for use in the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS 1), 1995-1996 Study. For additional information on scale construction and sources, please refer to the scale documentation included with the data collection. Respondents were drawn from a nationally representative random-digit-dial sample of non-institutionalized, English-speaking adults, aged 25-74, selected from working telephone banks in the coterminous United States. Those queried participated in an initial telephone interview and responded to a mail questionnaire. Please see the Descriptions of Midlife in the United Sates (MIDUS) Samples documentation provided by ICPSR for more detailed information. Respondents were drawn from a nationally representative random-digit-dial sample of non-institutionalized, English-speaking adults, aged 25-74, selected from working telephone banks in the coterminous United States. Those queried participated in an initial telephone interview and responded to a mail questionnaire. Smallest Geographic Unit: None Datasets: DS0: Study-Level Files DS1: Main, Siblings and Twin Data DS2: Twin Screener Data DS3: Coded Text Data DS4: Merged Data with Weights (Online Analysis Only) DS6: Midlife in the United States (MIDUS 1), 1995-1996, Merged Data with Weights (Online Analysis Only) Response Rates: The response rate for the national Random-Digit Dialing (RDD) sample was 70 percent. The Self-Administered Questionnaire (SAQ) follow-up response rate was 89 percent. computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI) Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) Series self-enumerated questionnaire mail questionnaire

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    Authors: Angela Muir;

    Summary The history of childbirth in England has gained increasing momentum, but no studies have been carried out for Wales, and therefore the nature of childbirth in early modern Wales remains largely unknown. This article seeks to redress this imbalance in two ways: First, by examining Welsh parish, court and ecclesiastical records for evidence of those who attended parturient women. This evidence demonstrates that Welsh midwives were not a homogeneous group who shared a common status and experience, but were a diverse mix of practitioners drawn from a range of socioeconomic backgrounds. Secondly, by assessing the care these practitioners provided to some of the most marginalised in Welsh society: unmarried pregnant women. Parish resources were limited, and poor law provision often covered only what was considered absolutely necessary. Analysis of what was deemed essential for the safe delivery of illegitimate infants provides a revealing glimpse of to the ‘ceremony of childbirth’ in eighteenth-century Wales.

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    OpenAPC Global Initiative; Social History of Medicine
    Article . Conference object . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Hodgkins, Jamie; Orr, Caley M.; Gravel���Miguel, Claudine; Riel-Salvatore, Julien; +23 Authors

    AbstractThe evolution and development of human mortuary behaviors is of enormous cultural significance. Here we report a richly-decorated young infant burial (AVH-1) from Arma Veirana (Liguria, northwestern Italy) that is directly dated to 10,211–9910 cal BP (95.4% probability), placing it within the early Holocene and therefore attributable to the early Mesolithic, a cultural period from which well-documented burials are exceedingly rare. Virtual dental histology, proteomics, and aDNA indicate that the infant was a 40–50 days old female. Associated artifacts indicate significant material and emotional investment in the child’s interment. The detailed biological profile of AVH-1 establishes the child as the earliest European near-neonate documented to be female. The Arma Veirana burial thus provides insight into sex/gender-based social status, funerary treatment, and the attribution of personhood to the youngest individuals among prehistoric hunter-gatherer groups and adds substantially to the scant data on mortuary practices from an important period in prehistory shortly following the end of the last Ice Age.

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  • Authors: Donald Fyson; François Fenchel;

    This article presents a methodological discussion and analysis of nineteenth-century local prison registers, using two datasets drawn from the common gaols of Quebec City (1813–1871) and of Montreal (1836–1899). It first examines the analytical possibilities offered by the wealth of serial data in these sources, concentrating especially on marital status and on the reconstruction of prisoners' incarceration histories. It then turns to the pitfalls inherent in exploiting such administrative records, notably the vagaries of social categorization and of stature measurement, arguing for the importance of reconstructing the legal and administrative contexts of prisoner data collection.

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    Authors: Richard, Marcoux; Amadou, Noumbissi; Tukufu, Zuberi;

    AbstractImportant investments in Africa have reduced slightly the levels child mortalitybut life expectancy still very low. The number of children without survivingbiological parents is increasing and orphans are becoming an important socialproblem. Because Sahelian societies are mostly patriarchal, becoming fatherlessor motherless will have different effects on the well being of the child. Thispaper examines the levels and trends of the survival status of the parents andthen, living arrangements of orphans. We describe characteristics of thesechildren with a special focus on education and economic activities. The paperuses the censuses from Chad, Niger and Senegal made available by the AfricanCensus Analysis Project (ACAP) held at University of Pennsylvania. Thesecountries collected information on survival status of each biological parent toestimate adult mortality but the potential of this information for research onchild well-being is rarely exploited.RésuméDes investissements importants dans les secteurs de la santé et des servicessociaux en Afrique ont largement contribué à réduire la mortalité des enfants aucours des dernières années mais paradoxalement, dans certaines régions, onaurait assisté à une diminution de l’espérance de vie. La conséquence logiquede ce double phénomène est une augmentation du nombre d’orphelins. Or, dansles sociétés patriarcales du Sahel, le fait de perdre son père ou sa mère peutavoir des effets différents. Cet article examine d’abord les niveaux et lestendances de la survie des parents selon l’âge des jeunes et s’intéresse ensuite àl’éducation et à la mise au travail des enfants et ce, selon qu’ils sont orphelinsou non. L’ensemble des analyses repose sur le traitement des données derecensements rendues accessibles dans le cadre du Programme d’analyse desrecensements africains de l’Université de Pennsylvanie et ce, pour trois payssahéliens : le Sénégal, le Niger et le Tchad. Des questions sur la survie dechacun de parents ont été prévues dans les questionnaires de recensements deces pays. Ces informations sont habituellement utilisées uniquement pourestimer la mortalité adulte alors que cet article révèle les potentialités d’analysede ces informations pour caractériser les conditions sociales des orphelins enAfrique.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2010
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Canadian Studies in Population
    Other literature type . Article . 2010
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      Canadian Studies in Population
      Other literature type . Article . 2010
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Morgan Ritchie; Dana Lepofsky;

    Abstract Households link micro and macro scales of social interactions, and both reflect and initiate social transformations, from the scale of the house to the region. Despite their potential interpretive efficacy, few studies scale up from interpretations of household dynamics to that of the larger social landscape. We examine local and regional social changes by documenting changing interactions between households at the large Sts’ailes-Coast Salish settlement of Hiqelem on the Harrison River. We focus on the period 1500 to 1000 years ago – a transformative period across the Pacific Northwest Coast and Interior Plateau marked by changes in burial practices, the intensification of warfare, new technologies, and by larger settlements exhibiting ranked social status. Shifts in house(hold) and settlement structure at Hiqelem reveal how these region-wide changes were manifest in social groupings at the local level and how social changes at the local level in turn reverberate throughout the nested social networks characteristic of the region. We detect several related changes at Hiqelem including an increased number of houses, the formation of local groups, the co-occurrence for the first time of pithouses and plank houses, the relocation of houses, increasing segmentation and autonomy of households, and significant differences among house sizes.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal of Anthropol...arrow_drop_down
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    Journal of Anthropological Archaeology
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal of Anthropol...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Journal of Anthropological Archaeology
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Mah, Alice;

    This article analyzes the phenomenon of place attachment to "home" in two areas of industrial decline: Walker, Newcastle-upon-Tyne (UK), and Highland, Niagara Falls, New York (USA). The research contributes to theoretical and empirical literatures from sociology, anthropology, geography, environmental psychology, and material culture studies on notions of place, community, memory, and home. Despite socioeconomic deprivation and material devastation in areas of industrial decline, houses and neighborhood spaces can become invested with notions of family and community unity, nostalgia for a shared industrial past, and stability amidst socioeconomic change. Place attachment to “home” is particularly painful during times of post-industrial transition: in the case of Walker, people's homes are under threat of demolition with imminent City-Council-led regeneration of the community; and in the case of Highland, houses are located on contaminated and economically unviable land. Drawing in both cases on semi-structured interviews with a range of local people between 2005 and 2007, this article argues that narratives of place attachment—of "devastation but also home"—reveal some of the contradictions and uncertainties of living through difficult processes of social and economic change.

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    Home Cultures
    Article . 2009 . Peer-reviewed
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      Home Cultures
      Article . 2009 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Sarah E. Patterson; Rachel Margolis; Ashton M. Verdery;

    Do different operationalizations of family structure offer different understandings of the links between family structure and older adult mortality? Using the Health and Retirement Study (N=29,665), we examine mortality risks by three measures of family structure: whether respondents have different family statuses (e.g., being married vs. unmarried), the volume of family members available (e.g., having one vs. two living immediate family members), and family embeddedness (e.g., has neither spouse nor child vs. has spouse but no child). We focus on three kin types: partner/spouse, children, and siblings. We find that differences in empirical estimates across measures of family structure are not dramatic, but that family embeddedness can show some additional heterogeneity in mortality patterns over family status variables or the volume of ties. This article tests different ways of operationalising family structure to study mortality outcomes and advances our understanding of how family functions as a key social determinant of health.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2020
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    Population Studies
    Article
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    Population Studies
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      Population Studies
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      Population Studies
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Dhuey, Elizabeth; Lipscomb, Stephen;

    This study extends recent findings of a relationship between the relative age of students among their peers and their probability of disability classification. Using three nationally representative surveys spanning 1988-2004 and grades K-10, we find that an additional month of relative age decreases the likelihood of receiving special education services by 2-5 percent. Relative age effects are strong for learning disabilities but not for other disabilities. We measure them for boys starting in kindergarten but not for girls until 3rd grade. We also measure them for white and Hispanic students but not for black students or differentially by socioeconomic quartiles. Results are consistent with the interpretation that disability assessments do not screen for the possibility that relatively young students are over-referred for evaluation. Lastly, we present suggestive evidence that math achievement gains due to disability classification may differentially benefit relatively young students.

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    Economics of Education Review
    Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
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    SSRN Electronic Journal
    Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Economics of Education Review
      Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
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      SSRN Electronic Journal
      Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
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