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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Puddu, Mauro;
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Archivio istituziona...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Archivio istituziona...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao

    Ekşi Höyük Excavations were initiated following the results obtained from the surface surveys conducted in the Upper Menderes Basin. Ekşi Höyük is one of the identified seventeen settlements which were settled during Neolithic and Early Chalcolithic periods. The fact that Ekşi Höyük was not resettled farther than the 13th century cemetery area after the Early Chalcolithic period enabled the Early Chalcolithic and Neolithic layers to be reached just below the surface of the settlement. Although the layers belonging to the Early Chalcolithic period have been destroyed due to being close to surface and agricultural activities carried out on the mound for many years, they have been preserved in narrow areas. The data obtained show that this layer is represented by structures with rectangular plans, stone foundations and mud-brick bodies. Pottery traditions are represented by paint decorated and monochrome pottery groups known in the literature as Hacılar ceramics, which are intensely seen especially in the settlements of the Lakes Region. The Neolithic period layers of the settlement are represented by lime-based structures with rectangular plans in the 7th and 6th layers. Except for a few examples, there are no ceramics found in these layers. The 5th and 4a-b layers, which we can define as Late Neolithic Period layers, are represented by rectangular and apsidal structures. Numerous data on bones, terracotta and stone tool production were obtained from these structures. The pottery of this period is generally represented by monochrome pottery with red and brown exterior surface colors. All these architectural and small finds summarized within the scope of the project were evaluated and reported. Ekşi Höyük Kazı çalışmaları Yukarı Menderes Havzasında yürütülen yüzey araştırmalarında elde edilen sonuçların ardından başlatılmıştır. Ekşi Höyük, havzada tespit edilen 18 Neolitik ve Erken Kalkolitik dönemlerde iskân edilen yerleşimlerden biridir. Ekşi Höyük’ün Erken Kalkolitik dönemden sonra 13. yy’daki mezarlık alanı dışında yeniden iskana tabi olmamış olması yerleşimde yüzeyin hemen altında Erken Kalkolitik ve Neolitik tabakalara ulaşılmasına olanak sağlamıştır. Erken Kalkolitik döneme ait tabakalar her ne kadar yüzeye yakın olması ve höyük üzerinde uzun yıllar sürdürülen tarımsal faaliyetlerden ötürü tahrip olmuş olsa da dar alanlarda korunmuştur. Elde edilen veriler bu tabakanın dikdörtgen planlı taş temelli kerpiç bedenli mekanlar ile temsil edildiği görülmektedir. Çanak çömlek gelenekleri ise özellikle Göller yöresi yerleşimlerinde yoğun bir biçimde görülen Hacılar seramikleri olarak literatürde bilinen boya bezemeli ve monokrom çanak çömlek gruplarıyla temsil edilmektedir. Yerleşimin Neolitik dönem tabakaları 7.ve 6. Tabakalarda kireç tabanlı dikdörtgen planlı mekanlar ile temsil edilmektedir. Bu tabakalarda birkaç örnek dışında seramik bulunmamaktır. Geç Neolitik Dönem tabaları olarak tanımlayabileceğimiz 5. ve 4a-b tabakaları ise dikdörtgen ve apsisli yapılar ile temsil edilmektedir. Söz konusu yapılar içerisinde kemik, pişmiş toprak ve taş alet üretimine dair çok sayıda veri elde edilmiştir. Bu dönem çanak çömleği ise genel olarak kırmızı ve kahverengi dış yüzey rengine sahip monokrom çanak çömleklerle temsil edilmektedir. Proje kapsamında özetlenen tüm bu mimari ve küçük buluntular değerlendirilerek raporlaştırılmıştır.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Ege University Insti...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Ege University Insti...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Cappella, Federico;
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Archivio della ricer...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Archivio della ricer...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Ngonadi, Chioma;

    This thesis investigates food production and subsistence practices among early iron using communities in southeastern Nigeria. Lejja is a cluster of villages in Igboland, southeastern Nigeria where iron smelting flourished on an industrial scale from around the late first millennium BC. The huge number of slag blocks on the surface reveals that ironworking here was a highly sophisticated, long lived and well developed tradition with its technique that involved large scale metal production. Despite the research conducted into iron production, little attention has been paid to domestic archaeology and archaeobotanical studies of food production in Lejja are rare. Rather, previous scholarship on food production was based on hypothetical assumptions drawing from oral history and ethnographic data. Prior to this study, there had been no previous archaeobotanical studies conducted in southeastern Nigeria. Thus, this study is the first to examine the subsistence practice and food economy in ancient Igboland to understand how these iron smelters sustained life, fed themselves and navigated the quest for food. The thesis demonstrates that earlier inhabitants of Lejja had longstanding agricultural practices that supported the sophisticated industrial scale technology of ironworking from at least 840-2100 BP This is evidenced by archaeobotanical remains recovered from deeply stratified excavations at Amaovoko (AM) and Amaebo-Attamah (AA) Lejja. This thesis demonstrates the presence of oil palm and tubers but the absence of cereal crops such as pearl millet. These data are further used to argue that the past inhabitants of Lejja consisted of a single community engaged in both smelting and farming who were involved in local production and the exchange of materials and ideas between themselves.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Apolloarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Apolloarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Bruni, Stefano;
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Archivio istituziona...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Archivio istituziona...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Temür, Bora;

    MÖ. 2. binyılın başı ile birlikte Batı Anadolu'da gerek kültürel gerekse sosyal örgütlenme bağlamında daha karmaşık ve yerel unsurların ön plana çıktığı bir sürece girilmiştir. Beycesultan Höyük'te tüm aşamaları kesintisiz biçimde izlenebilen bu sürecin kültürel unsurlarının detaylı biçimde ele alınması, özellikle İç Batı Anadolu'nun kültürel ve kronolojik sürecinin aydınlatılması açısından büyük önem arz etmektedir. Beycesultan Höyük'te son yıllarda gerçekleştirilen kazılar, Orta Tunç Çağı ve Geç Tunç Çağı tabakaları üzerine odaklanmıştır. Söz konusu çalışmalar sonucunda Beycesultan Höyük'ün tabakalanması büyük ölçüde değiştirilmiştir. Bu projenin konusunu oluşturan Beycesultan Höyük'ün Orta Tunç Çağı, eski tabakalanmada V ve IV. tabakalar ile yeni tabakalanmada ise 10-7. tabakalar ile temsil edilmektedir. Tarafımızdan 2012-2019 kazı sezonlarında araştırılmış olan Orta Tunç Çağı tabakaları henüz başlangıç aşamasında olmakla birlikte daha şimdiden özellikle kronolojik bağlamda bazı yeni sonuçlar vermiştir. Ġlk dönem kazı çalışmalarında Orta Tunç Çağı tabakaların tarihlendirilmesinin daha çok göreli tarihleme yöntemleri ile yapılması ve V. tabakadan elde edilen radyokarbon analiz sonucunun arkeolojik verilerle desteklenmemesinden ötürü tabakaların tarihlenmesinin tatmin edici bir düzeye ulaşmamasına neden olmuştur. Yeni yapılan kazılar sonucunda V ve IVc ile ilişkilendirilen 10. ve 7. Tabakadan elde edilen radyokarbon analiz sonuçları bu tabakaların daha önce önerilen tarihlerden daha erkene çekilmesi gerektiğini göstermiştir. With the beginning of the second millennium BC, a process was introduced in Western Anatolia in the context of both cultural and social organization, where more complex and local elements came to the fore. In Beycesultan Höyük, the cultural aspects of this process, which can be monitored without interruption, are of great importance, especially in terms of enlightening the cultural and chronological process of Central Western Anatolia. Excavations in Beycesultan Höyük in recent years have focused on the Middle Bronze Age and Late Bronze Age levels. As a result of these studies, the stratification of Beycesultan Höyük has been changed to a great extent. The Middle Bronze Age levels of Beycesultan Höyük, which constitute the subject of this project, are in the old stratification V and IV, 10-7 in new stratification. The Middle Bronze Age levels, which have been explored by us during the 2012-2019 excavation seasons, are still in their infancy, but have already yielded some new results, especially in a chronological context. In the early excavations, the dating of the Middle Bronze Age layers was mostly done with relative dating methods, and the result of the radiocarbon analysis obtained from the 5th layer was not supported by archaeological data, which caused the dating of the layers to not reach a satisfactory level. Radiocarbon analysis results obtained from Layers 10 and 7 associated with V and IVc as a result of the new excavations showed that these layers should be pulled earlier than the previously suggested dates.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Ege University Insti...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Ege University Insti...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Coimbra, Inês Martins;

    O homem é capaz de criar vários materiais, nomeadamente a cerâmica, que apresenta várias aplicações. A sua conceção exige elevado conhecimento técnico, a nível das matérias-primas e do seu processo de transformação. De todos os ramos da cerâmica, a indústria sanitária é aquela que necessita de um conhecimento mais aprofundado, para que se utilizem as melhores técnicas, garantido a qualidade e segurança do produto final. O modelo de economia circular é baseado na valorização de materiais dentro de um sistema fechado, possibilitando assim, a redução, reutilização, recuperação e a reciclagem de materiais e energia. No âmbito da dissertação do mestrado em Engenharia Química – Ramo de Qualidade foi realizado um estudo na empresa ARCH, S.A que contemplou três objetivos principais: quantificar a água de lavagem utilizada nas várias seções do processo de fabrico, a implementação de medidas que permitissem diminuir o consumo de água e o desenvolvimento de uma estratégia para a recuperação do vidrado branco. As seções onde havia a necessidade de um maior foco devido ao seu elevado consumo de água foram a olaria 1.1 e a vidragem, consumos de 26% e 30% respetivamente em relação ao consumo total de água. Uma das medidas implementadas na vidragem foi a redução da lavagem total das cabines, havendo uma diminuição ao nível do consumo da água de 32,8 m3 . Nos equipamentos analisados da olaria 1.1 e vidragem foi calculada a matéria seca possível de ser recuperada bem como a percentagem de resíduos e de lamas correspondentes. Relativamente à recuperação do vidrado, foram usadas duas técnicas, o uso de uma centrífuga e posteriormente de uma aparadeira, tendo sido realizado um controlo de qualidade a ambos os vidrados, de forma a comprovar a sua viabilidade. No vidrado que foi possível reciclar, foi calculada também a percentagem de recuperação anual com base na aparadeira instalada na cabine na qual a quantidade de vidrado a recuperar foi cerca de 13% Man can create various materials, including ceramics, which have various applications. Its design requires high technical knowledge, in terms of raw materials and their transformation process. From all areas of ceramics, the sanitary industry is the one that needs more in-depth knowledge, in order to use the best techniques, guaranteeing the quality and safety of the final product. The circular economy model is based on the valorization of materials within a closed system, leading to, reduction, reuse, recovery and recycling of materials and energy. In the scope of the Master's thesis in Chemical Engineering – Quality, a study was carried out at the company ARCH, S.A, which contemplated three main objectives: the quantification of the water consumption in the various sections of the manufacturing process, the implementation of measures to reduce water consumption and the development of a strategy for the recovery of white glaze. The sections where there was a need for greater focus due to their high-water consumption were pottery 1.1 and glazing, consumption of 26% and 30% respectively regarding to total water consumption. One of the measures implemented in the glazing was the reduction of number of cabin washings, with a reduction in water consumption of 32.8 m3 . In the analyzed equipment of pottery 1.1 and glazing, the potential recovery of dry matter was estimated, as well as the percentage of waste and corresponding sludge. Regarding the recovery of the glaze, two techniques were used, the use of a centrifuge and later the use of a container that retains the excess of glaze, with a quality control carried out on both glazes, to prove their viability. The percentage of annual recovery was also calculated for the recycled glaze, based on the container installed in the cabin, in which the amount of glaze to be recovered was approximately 13%

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Repositório Científi...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Repositório Científi...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Mistireki, Aleksandra;
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Zurich Open Reposito...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Zurich Open Reposito...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Gosden, C; Malafouris, L;

    AbstractWe advocate a Process Archaeology (P-Arch) which explores modes of becoming rather than being. We advance three theoretical postulates we feel will be useful in understanding the process of becoming. And then six temporal propositions, with the latter arranged from the briefest to the longest timescale. We lay down the basic conceptual foundation of our approach using the example of pottery making and we follow the process of creativity in between the hand of the potter and the affordances of clay. This specific creative entanglement of flow and form on a fast bodily timescale provides our grounding metaphor for an archaeology of becoming over the long term. Subsequent propositions provide the basis for exploring issues of longer-term material engagement and change.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Oxford University Re...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    World Archaeology
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Oxford University Re...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      World Archaeology
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Nikšić, Petra;

    U doktorskom radu primarno je analizirano kasnoantičko keramičko posuđe s položaja Majka Božja Gorska i Pavlova pećina u Loboru. Ono je identificirano, klasificirano, katalogizirano i interpretirano u kontekstu njegovog nalaza unutar kasnoantičkog visinskog naselja i u svezi s njim. Osim kasnoantičkog, zabilježena je i manja količina ulomaka antičkog keramičkog posuđa koja dokazuje da taj položaj nije bio posve napušten ni tijekom razdoblja od 1. do 3. st. Unatoč tome, mnogo veća količina kasnoantičkog keramičkog posuđa od 3. do 6. st. potvrđuje da se revitalizacija kasnolatenske gradine, odnosno osnutak kasnoantičkog visinskog naselja u Loboru treba datirati nakon sredine 3. st. Najkasniji identificirani primjerci kasnoantičkog keramičkog posuđa mogu se datirati u prvu polovicu 6. st., a nisu pronađene posude koje bi se mogle sa sigurnošću datirati nakon toga vremena, unatoč tome što analize C14 pokazuju da je visinsko naselje spaljeno oko 580. god. Najveća količina ulomaka kasnoantičkog keramičkog posuđa može se datirati u 4. i prvu polovicu 5. st. Zabilježene su skupine uvoznog mediteranskog, regionalnog i lokalno proizvedenog keramičkog posuđa, a prema sadašnjem stanju istraživanja, nisu zabilježene skupine za koje bi se moglo sa sigurnošću tvrditi da su neromanskog podrijetla. Kasnoantičkom finom keramičkom posuđu pripisano je glazirano keramičko posuđe, posuđe s prevlakom, s uglačanim ukrasom i redukcijski i oksidacijski pečeno posuđe, a grubom sitnozrnato i krupnozrnato posuđe. Tipološko-kronološkom i kvantitativnom analizom ukupnog spektra kasnoantičkog keramičkog posuđa, kao i pojedinih skupina, daje se interpretacija prostornog uređenja visinskog naselja u Loboru, ali i dijela svakodnevnog života kasnoantičkog stanovništva noričko-panonskog graničnog područja, kojemu je pripadao loborski prostor, koji se odnosi na proizvodnju, distribuciju, korištenje i odbacivanje keramičkog posuđa. The lack of a large amount of pottery sherds dating from the 1st to the middle of the 3rd century at the site of Our Lady of the Mountain indicates that the population did not live there permanently during that period. After the establishment of peace and the organization of the Roman administrative authority, the population no longer needed to live on the hilltop and moved to the valley where a settlement with a necropolis was organized. It is not possible to give a precise answer to the question about the function of the hilltop site after the population moved to the valley. The first possibility is that part of the population still remained on the hilltop and lived there in a small, rural settlement of wooden houses, of which almost nothing has been preserved, except perhaps a few post holes that were not destroyed by medieval and modern graves. If, however, the population of the hilltop had completely abandoned their residence there, the possibility of retaining a cult place there remains. There is no evidence that the Late La Tène or perhaps Early Roman building beside the Early Christian complex was used for housing, as no significant amount of pottery was found there. More specifically, regarding the Romanization period, no large amount of pottery was found that could confirm that the hilltop was used as a settlement. Nevertheless, the pottery that has been found and can be dated to that period belongs to fine pots that may not be the pinnacle of Roman pottery, but for a settlement geographically isolated and therefore less connected to the rest of the Romanized part of the Noric-Pannonian border area, those finds are quite significant, even in the fragmented state in which they are. Fragments of thin-walled pottery, slipware, so-called eggshell ware and face pots belong to this period. The complete absence of fragments of coarse pots of the Late La Tène period tradition with a surface combed with vertical, slanted or irregular strokes is also significant, and this situation may indicate that the hillfort was really only a cult area where offerings to pagan deities were brought in fine tableware. This could be confirmed by the face pot fragment that are sometimes associated with pre-Roman beliefs, as well as the positions where earlier Roman pottery was found. All fragments of thin-walled pottery, slipware, face pots, etc. were found in trenches around the present-day church and early Christian church complex, i.e. around a potential earlier pagan sanctuary. Of the coarser pots that can be attributed to the 1st and 2nd century, only very small fragments of a relatively fine fabric can be singled out with certainty, decorated with short strokes with a small comb that sometimes overlap. For the earlier Roman period in Lobor, the find of Trajan's sestertius is also significant, which, together with a bowl of thin-walled pottery of probably Siscian production, is one of the earliest finds at the site of Our Lady of the Mountain, although there is a possibility that it was in later use. If Trajan's coin from Lobor is indeed of a later date, the thin-walled pottery bowl is the earliest confirmed find of Roman pottery in Lobor. Although it is attributed to Siscian production, based on the discovery of one bowl, it cannot be claimed that the process of Romanization arrived from the south, especially since the Lobor area has been connected with the area northwest of it since at least the Late Bronze Age, if not earlier. As it seems according to the current state of research and the analysis of pottery, life returned to the hillfort to a greater extent in the second third or maybe even the second half of the 3rd century. It is possible that the return of the population to the hillfort did not take place during a shorter period, but the findings of pottery suggest that. The number of vessels that can be attributed to the time around the middle of the 3rd century is greater than the number of those dated to the 1st and 2nd century, and in addition, the distribution of fragments of this later ware is no longer concentrated around the present-day church, but extends to the northern plateau and the area along the northern rampart. There are several fragments of relief terrae sigillatae that can be attributed to the Rheinzabern workshops and dated to the second half of the 2nd or the first half of the 3rd century. The only fragment of a Faltenbecher type cup can be dated from the end of the 2nd to the third quarter of the 3rd century. In this later group of early Roman pottery, Pannonische Glanztonware fragments are the most numerous. Although the sherds were not found in a closed context, based on analogies they are dated from the first quarter of the 2nd to the end of the 3rd century. It is indicative that the group of tableware that is dated at the latest is also the most common of the earlier Roman pottery. The largest number of Roman coins found at the site of Our Lady of the Mountain in Lobor can be dated from the middle of the 3rd century onwards. Those include all Roman coins except for the aforementioned Trajan's sestertius and the perforated sestertius of Maximinus I of Thrace, which was obviously in secondary use in a later period. Taking into account the dating of the coins and the group of pottery that appeared in the middle or second half of the 3rd century and whose quantity also increased significantly after that period, primarily glazed pottery, it can be determined with considerable certainty that life returned to the late La Tène hillfort immediately after the middle of the 3rd century and that the Late Antique hilltop settlement in Lobor was established. It is not excluded that the refugial character of the position of the Lobor hillfort was used earlier, perhaps during the Marcomannic Wars, but there is no evidence for this so far. A large amount of tableware cannot be attributed to that time, and certain types, such as unglazed mortars, are completely missing. In addition, there are no finds of Roman coins or other objects that can certainly be attributed to that time and interpreted in favor of a shorter settlement during the uncertain times of the second half of the 2nd century. The significant increase in the amount of pottery and the presence of almost all groups of pottery from the middle of the 3rd century, which are facts that indicate the permanent character of the hilltop settlement in Late Antiquity, could be connected with the turbulent times of the so-called crisis of the 3rd century. The beginning of that crisis period can be connected to the latest dated fragments of tombstones found as spolia at the site of Our Lady of the Mountain, as well as the stelae of Marcus Cocceius Superianus and Valerius Lucilianus found in the center of today's Lobor. It seems that since that time, the deceased are no longer buried in the necropolis of the lower settlement in Lobor, but in a so far unknown location, probably closer to the hilltop settlement, and later next to the early Christian complex in the center of the hilltop settlement. The discovery of graves on the artificially formed elevation north of the shrine of Our Lady of the Mountain did not result in a sufficient amount of pottery fragments that could confirm the position as a Late Antique cemetery, despite the discovery of one bone comb and the foot of a glass cup. The number of pottery fragments is negligible and there are no diagnostic sherds. As it seems so far, the abandonment of the permanent settlement in the valley along the Rieka stream and the establishment of the hilltop settlement was probably not only connected with the threats to the Roman population from the barbarian groups from the other side of the Danube, but also with the general state of insecurity during a greater part of the 3rd century. Late Antique glazed pottery marks the period from the second half of the 3rd to the middle or second half of the 5th century. Although it represents only 2.57% of the Late Antique pottery sherds, which is not an unusual number for sites far from the major workshop centers on the Danube or in northern Italy, glazed pottery represents a group in which almost all basic types and methods of decoration are represented. The bowls, plates, cups, bowls with handles and jugs belong mostly to tableware and mortars to kitchenware. Decorative motifs include grooved single and combed horizontal lines, single and combed undulations, small triangular, rectangular and irregular motifs made by rouletting, notches and oval motifs made with a sharp or rounded object on the rim, notches made using the chattering technique, stamped concentric circles, modeled wavy rim, and sometimes there are combinations of two decorative motifs. The decoration was sometimes carried out by painting with a red slip in the form of flames and flower petals, and the exteriors of several glazed bowls were decorated with burnished horizontal lines. Mortars decorated with slip painting and bowls with burnished horizontal lines, as well as related examples of glazed pottery with an intense olive green or yellow green glaze combined with red slip without a pattern should probably be dated earlier, to the second half of the 3rd and the first half of the 4th century, and glazed pottery of simpler forms, duller glaze and slip color if it was applied, and generally glazed pottery of poor glaze quality could be dated to the later period of the second half of the 4th and the first half of the 5th century. No examples of glazed pottery have been identified that could be could be dated only to the second half of the 5 th or even the 6th century, which is also a problem with other groups of Late Antique pottery from Lobor. Considering the theory about local workshops of glazed pottery, which has not yet been confirmed by field research, it was not possible to determine the workshop origin of the glazed pottery from Lobor, but based on the variety of fabrics, firing techniques, glaze and slip colors and methods of decoration, it is very likely that this glazed pottery originates from several workshops that were probably not located in the immediate vicinity of the hilltop settlement in Lobor. If such a workshop had existed nearby, the glazed pottery from Lobor would have been much more uniform, and there would have probably been fragments of tableware sets that have not been recorded so far. According to that and on the basis of analogies from the NoricPannonian border area, the origin of the glazed pottery from Lobor should be sought at the regional level in several workshop centers or smaller workshops. Unlike glazed pottery, slipware cannot be associated only with Late Antiquity, as is evident from the finds of thin-walled pottery, and rare examples remain almost until the end of late antique hilltop settlement and represent some of the latest late antique objects found in Lobor. In addition to thin-walled pottery, this group of pottery also includes terra sigillata, Pannonische Glanztonware, but also vessels of late antique forms with slip in shades of red and gray, which for the most part correspond to the forms of late antique glazed pottery. Simple oil lamps with a handle also appear in this group. Some of the reduction-fired jugs with a dark gray slip are similar in forms to jugs with burnished decoration and simple reduction-fired jugs without slip or processed surface. Considering the correlation of this group, most of the slipware, apart from the earlier groups of the 2nd and 3rd century, should be dated from the second half of the 3rd to the middle or second half of the 5th century. Here, the group of shallow bowls or deep plates that imitate North African red slipped pottery, specifically the form Hayes 61a and its variant Hayes 61a trans. Although the fabric, firing technique and slip quality are completely different, the orm of some examples is completely identical to North African examples and should be dated from the middle of the 4th to the middle of the 5th century. Although they do not represent original North African products, they appeared in the Noric-Pannonian at the height of North African import to the area in the 4th and 5th century and certainly belong to regional production, probably from the northern Italy that had the most contact with overseas areas such as North Africa and the Eastern Mediterranean. Original North African and Eastern Mediterranean ware was recorded only around the end of the 5th century. An undecorated fragment of an ARSW conical bowl of the Hayes 87 or 88 form and a fragment of a North African oil lamp of the Hayes II/Atlante X form decorated with triangle and palmette motifs, as well as an undecorated fragment of an Eastern Mediterranean LRC form Hayes 3E bowl were found in Lobor. The North African sherds can be dated to the end of the 5th or the beginning of the 6th century, and the Eastern Mediterranean to the last quarter of the 5th and the first quarter of the 6th century. Given the small number of fragments of Mediterranean pottery and the fact that earlier forms, which would belong to the period of more intensive import to the Noric-Pannonian area, were not found, so far it should be assumed that they were personal property that was probably brought to Lobor at the beginning of the 6 th century, and not objects of trade between the Mediterranean and the Lobor area. Perhaps their find in Lobor was connected to the relocation of part of the population from the territory of Poetovio, or it was even connected with the withdrawal of part of the population from Noricum Ripense. If this was indeed the case, it would confirm the gathering and refugial role of the fortified hilltop settlement in Lobor, which at the beginning of the 6th century was obviously an important church center where the early Christian complex with a church and a baptistery and possibly other churches was expanded and renovated. The assumption was that the hilltop settlement in Lobor certainly gathered the population of today’s Zlatar valley in unsafe periods, the population which usually lived on farms and settlements similar to the villa in Gornja Batina. The finds of imported Mediterranean tableware confirm that the settlement in Lobor also received residents of probably higher ranks from the threatened settlements of Noric-Pannonian border area. Although early Christian motifs, which are otherwise common, were not preserved on the mentioned imported pottery due to the high degree of fragmentation, it cannot be ruled out that the pottery was brought as part of the household of the Bishop of Poetovio, who is sometimes associated with the construction of the early Christian complex in Lobor, and perhaps with his stay in to an unexplored building on the south side of the site of Our Lady of the Mountain. As for the later forms of imported Mediterranean pottery, they have not been found in Lobor so far, so the question about the end of life in the hilltop settlement cannot be answered solely on the basis of pottery finds. Burnished pottery and pottery with burnished decoration from Lobor belong to the 4th and 5th centuries. A smaller part of that group of pottery belongs to open-shaped vessels, mostly bowls, decorated exclusively with polished horizontal lines, often on both sides of the vessel, for which the closest analogies were found in the Danube area of the eastern Noricum Ripense. Based on these analogies, the dating of the Lobor specimens of this group is placed from the middle of the 4th to the middle of the 5th century. Another group of the pottery with burnished decoration can be connected with the Pannonian part of the Danube limes, where three groups appear based on technological, typological and decorative characteristics. By analyzing these characteristics, the examples from Lobor were placed in the first two groups and dated from the middle to the end of the 4th century in the case of the first group and to the last quarter of the 4th and the beginning of the 5th century in the case of the second group. No fragments were found that could be attributed to the third group. It is possible that, due to the distance from the Danube, the immediate danger and the influence of barbarian groups, with the presence of which the appearance and popularity of this group of pottery is at least partially connected, the dating of the pottery with burnished decoration from Lobor should be extended and that at least until the end of the 5th in the workshops from which this pottery was procured for the hilltop settlement in Lobor, the proven production technology known from older potters was used. It is certain that one cannot expect exactly the same fabrics as in the workshops on the Danube or other larger production centers in Pannonia, and the situation is similar as with glazed pottery and slipware. The variety of fabrics and firing techniques points to several workshops from which the population of Lobor procured pottery of this group. What is perhaps surprising about this group, which is linked to the influence of barbarian groups, is that in Lobor it was not found in combination with stamped pottery. Not a single fragment with stamped decoration typical for the 6th century has been found so far. According to the current state of research, this should mean that the Lobor area was not under the direct influence of the Lombards, although it is sometimes placed on the eastern edge of the so-called Pólis Norikón. Based on the absence of stamped pottery, it is not possible to determine whether this means that in the middle of the 6th century the hilltop settlement in Lobor was already abandoned or at least that the number of inhabitants was significantly reduced, or whether this only happened in the last quarter of the 6 th century, to which the burned layers in the baptistery and on the late antique rampart were dated. There are only a few items from Lobor that can be dated to the period between the latest dated form of pottery and the date of the burned layer. These are objects from grave 50 and a buckle part from a destroyed grave that can be dated to the first half of the 6th century and an S-fibula of the Várpalota-Vinkovci type dated to the second third of the 6th century. They may also be joined by fragments of imported Mediterranean vessels if they were really transferred from another settlement and remained in use for a longer time. The least amount of information about the late antique community in Lobor was provided by reduction- and oxidation-fired fine pottery. The types are related to those of the groups of glazed pottery, slipware and pottery with burnished decoration. Reduction-fired fine pottery is typologically more closely related to the pottery with burnished decoration, and oxidation-fired fine pottery to glazed pottery and slipware. This group includes interesting and rare examples of stamped pottery, which differ from the 6th century stamped pottery according to their fabrics and decorative motifs and clearly belong to an earlier time. There are two fragments of oxidation-fired jugs or pots with stamped concentric circles, which are a typical late antique motif, while another example is decorated in a more complicated way. It is a fragment of an oxidation-reduction fired vessel of large dimensions, which was decorated on the outside with a combination of a stamped rosette, arc motifs made by double rouletting and an applied twisted band. An analogy for this last example should probably be sought in the area of western Noricum Mediterraneum, but in the group of coarse pottery, which in that area is generally more elaborately decorated. Although one of the assumptions was that the final phase of life in the hilltop settlement in Lobor could be explained using the results of the analysis of coarse pottery, it shows that simple, long-lasting forms of pots, jugs, bowls and plates dominate, and of which no type can be exclusively dated to the second half of the 6th century. Pots with extended rims are by far the most common. The problem with dating and finding analogies is also represented by the fact that a large part of these pots and other vessels is undecorated. Decorated examples are dominated by simple decoration with grooved single and combed horizontal lines and single and combed wavy lines, and other decorative motifs are much less common. Another group of pottery that has not yet been found in Lobor, and is connected to groups of coarse pottery, is the so-called non-Roman pottery. These are biconical pots and deep bowls that are often decorated with wavy lines, and are known from the hilltop settlements of the Noric-Pannonian area. This pottery is also associated with the presence of Lombards in Noricum, so its absence in the hilltop settlement in Lobor is only a confirmation that there was no Lombard influence, at least as far as the production or distribution of pottery is concerned. In view of the found pottery with burnished decoration and typical late antique coarse vessels, one can only speculate about the probably indirect influence of barbarian groups, primarily Goths, from the end of the 4 th century. As for the spatial organization of the settlement based on the comparison of architectural remains and clusters of pottery sherds determined by means of quantitative analysis and calculation of the density of the number of sherds per square meter, it was determined that in Late Antiquity there was still a residential part of the settlement on the northern plateau and on the western plateau at least along the northern rampart. It seems that the Late La Tène earthen rampart on which the late antique wall was built provided sufficient protection from the strong northern wind. Based on the findings of terra sigillata, it can be assumed that the part of the plateau next to the northern rampart was already inhabited in the middle of the 3rd century, and considering the finds of a thin-walled ceramic bowl and an Eastern Mediterranean LRC bowl in the same area of the northern plateau outside of the enclosure wall, it can be assumed that buildings existed there even though they were not preserved. A ruin with Roman tegulae nearby could have belonged to that part of the settlement, where the third cluster of pottery sherds was recorded. As for the early Christian complex and the buildings in the immediate vicinity inside the enclosure wall, no late antique pottery sherds were found that could be attributed to the church inventory, but small remains of the building and the heating channel, which perished in a fire in the middle of the 5th century, were preserved partly located under the early Christian church. The majority of pottery finds in the so-called black layer can probably be associated with this building. The late antique ceramic vessels found in front of the facade of the present church should be connected to the wooden building west of the baptistery, which probably existed for some time together with the early Christian complex because it was bypassed by the drainage channel from the baptistery. The interpretation of the space inside the enclosure wall based on the pottery finds, which would indicate that those two buildings were equipped with a kitchen area, should still be taken with caution. This is the part of the site where the largest construction interventions were undertaken, as well as the most intensive burial of the deceased, and it is quite possible that the pottery finds come from disturbed layers and structures that were completely destroyed by later interventions, and all this especially considering the fact that inside the enclosure wall no significant clusters of pottery sherds were determined, neither in total nor by individual groups. Analyzes of traces of use show that in the hilltop settlement in Lobor, pottery was a valuable asset of the late antique population. The use of glazed mortars long after they were damaged and their original surface covered with grit and glaze was destroyed, as well as the repair of vessels of almost all groups (glazed, fine, rough), and not only the more luxurious products, prove that it was valuable enough and necessary to be used even after it has lost its original properties and quality. The recycling of pottery confirms that, after it’s use was really no longer possible, it was used as an additional resource in the settlement and was not completely discarded. In conclusion, it can be said that the fortified hilltop settlement in Lobor, founded as a permanent settlement around the middle of the 3rd century, according to the findings of late antique pottery, at least partially fits into the system of such settlements in the Noric-Pannonian border area. Despite the fortification, the ratio of pottery and other finds, especially those of a military nature, indicates that it was a civilian-type settlement that was transformed into a church center at the end of Late Antiquity. The representation of almost all groups of local, regional and imported late antique pottery confirms that the settlement was open to influences from other parts of the Roman Empire, especially from the north and west, despite the apparently isolated character of the settlement in Lobor, which was not located on important river or land routes and whose area was not mentioned in historical sources. In the middle of the 6th century, however, the settlement was closed against new influences, and the inhabitants probably practiced increasing self-sustainability and self-sufficiency in the last decades. An already abandoned settlement or a settlement with a significantly reduced number of inhabitants was burned according to analyzes around 580 AD, probably during the Avar-Slavic invasion. There are no more reliably dated pottery sherds from that time. Although the western parts of the Noric-Pannonian area saw the end of antiquity at the beginning of the 7th century, it seems that this end came a little earlier to the fortified hilltop settlement in Lobor.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao ODRAZ - Open Reposit...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    https://doi.org/10.17234/diss....
    Thesis . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao ODRAZ - Open Reposit...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      https://doi.org/10.17234/diss....
      Thesis . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Crossref
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12 Research products (1 rule applied)
  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Puddu, Mauro;
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Archivio istituziona...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Archivio istituziona...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao

    Ekşi Höyük Excavations were initiated following the results obtained from the surface surveys conducted in the Upper Menderes Basin. Ekşi Höyük is one of the identified seventeen settlements which were settled during Neolithic and Early Chalcolithic periods. The fact that Ekşi Höyük was not resettled farther than the 13th century cemetery area after the Early Chalcolithic period enabled the Early Chalcolithic and Neolithic layers to be reached just below the surface of the settlement. Although the layers belonging to the Early Chalcolithic period have been destroyed due to being close to surface and agricultural activities carried out on the mound for many years, they have been preserved in narrow areas. The data obtained show that this layer is represented by structures with rectangular plans, stone foundations and mud-brick bodies. Pottery traditions are represented by paint decorated and monochrome pottery groups known in the literature as Hacılar ceramics, which are intensely seen especially in the settlements of the Lakes Region. The Neolithic period layers of the settlement are represented by lime-based structures with rectangular plans in the 7th and 6th layers. Except for a few examples, there are no ceramics found in these layers. The 5th and 4a-b layers, which we can define as Late Neolithic Period layers, are represented by rectangular and apsidal structures. Numerous data on bones, terracotta and stone tool production were obtained from these structures. The pottery of this period is generally represented by monochrome pottery with red and brown exterior surface colors. All these architectural and small finds summarized within the scope of the project were evaluated and reported. Ekşi Höyük Kazı çalışmaları Yukarı Menderes Havzasında yürütülen yüzey araştırmalarında elde edilen sonuçların ardından başlatılmıştır. Ekşi Höyük, havzada tespit edilen 18 Neolitik ve Erken Kalkolitik dönemlerde iskân edilen yerleşimlerden biridir. Ekşi Höyük’ün Erken Kalkolitik dönemden sonra 13. yy’daki mezarlık alanı dışında yeniden iskana tabi olmamış olması yerleşimde yüzeyin hemen altında Erken Kalkolitik ve Neolitik tabakalara ulaşılmasına olanak sağlamıştır. Erken Kalkolitik döneme ait tabakalar her ne kadar yüzeye yakın olması ve höyük üzerinde uzun yıllar sürdürülen tarımsal faaliyetlerden ötürü tahrip olmuş olsa da dar alanlarda korunmuştur. Elde edilen veriler bu tabakanın dikdörtgen planlı taş temelli kerpiç bedenli mekanlar ile temsil edildiği görülmektedir. Çanak çömlek gelenekleri ise özellikle Göller yöresi yerleşimlerinde yoğun bir biçimde görülen Hacılar seramikleri olarak literatürde bilinen boya bezemeli ve monokrom çanak çömlek gruplarıyla temsil edilmektedir. Yerleşimin Neolitik dönem tabakaları 7.ve 6. Tabakalarda kireç tabanlı dikdörtgen planlı mekanlar ile temsil edilmektedir. Bu tabakalarda birkaç örnek dışında seramik bulunmamaktır. Geç Neolitik Dönem tabaları olarak tanımlayabileceğimiz 5. ve 4a-b tabakaları ise dikdörtgen ve apsisli yapılar ile temsil edilmektedir. Söz konusu yapılar içerisinde kemik, pişmiş toprak ve taş alet üretimine dair çok sayıda veri elde edilmiştir. Bu dönem çanak çömleği ise genel olarak kırmızı ve kahverengi dış yüzey rengine sahip monokrom çanak çömleklerle temsil edilmektedir. Proje kapsamında özetlenen tüm bu mimari ve küçük buluntular değerlendirilerek raporlaştırılmıştır.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Ege University Insti...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Ege University Insti...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Cappella, Federico;
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Archivio della ricer...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Archivio della ricer...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Ngonadi, Chioma;

    This thesis investigates food production and subsistence practices among early iron using communities in southeastern Nigeria. Lejja is a cluster of villages in Igboland, southeastern Nigeria where iron smelting flourished on an industrial scale from around the late first millennium BC. The huge number of slag blocks on the surface reveals that ironworking here was a highly sophisticated, long lived and well developed tradition with its technique that involved large scale metal production. Despite the research conducted into iron production, little attention has been paid to domestic archaeology and archaeobotanical studies of food production in Lejja are rare. Rather, previous scholarship on food production was based on hypothetical assumptions drawing from oral history and ethnographic data. Prior to this study, there had been no previous archaeobotanical studies conducted in southeastern Nigeria. Thus, this study is the first to examine the subsistence practice and food economy in ancient Igboland to understand how these iron smelters sustained life, fed themselves and navigated the quest for food. The thesis demonstrates that earlier inhabitants of Lejja had longstanding agricultural practices that supported the sophisticated industrial scale technology of ironworking from at least 840-2100 BP This is evidenced by archaeobotanical remains recovered from deeply stratified excavations at Amaovoko (AM) and Amaebo-Attamah (AA) Lejja. This thesis demonstrates the presence of oil palm and tubers but the absence of cereal crops such as pearl millet. These data are further used to argue that the past inhabitants of Lejja consisted of a single community engaged in both smelting and farming who were involved in local production and the exchange of materials and ideas between themselves.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Apolloarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Apolloarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Bruni, Stefano;
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Archivio istituziona...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Archivio istituziona...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Temür, Bora;

    MÖ. 2. binyılın başı ile birlikte Batı Anadolu'da gerek kültürel gerekse sosyal örgütlenme bağlamında daha karmaşık ve yerel unsurların ön plana çıktığı bir sürece girilmiştir. Beycesultan Höyük'te tüm aşamaları kesintisiz biçimde izlenebilen bu sürecin kültürel unsurlarının detaylı biçimde ele alınması, özellikle İç Batı Anadolu'nun kültürel ve kronolojik sürecinin aydınlatılması açısından büyük önem arz etmektedir. Beycesultan Höyük'te son yıllarda gerçekleştirilen kazılar, Orta Tunç Çağı ve Geç Tunç Çağı tabakaları üzerine odaklanmıştır. Söz konusu çalışmalar sonucunda Beycesultan Höyük'ün tabakalanması büyük ölçüde değiştirilmiştir. Bu projenin konusunu oluşturan Beycesultan Höyük'ün Orta Tunç Çağı, eski tabakalanmada V ve IV. tabakalar ile yeni tabakalanmada ise 10-7. tabakalar ile temsil edilmektedir. Tarafımızdan 2012-2019 kazı sezonlarında araştırılmış olan Orta Tunç Çağı tabakaları henüz başlangıç aşamasında olmakla birlikte daha şimdiden özellikle kronolojik bağlamda bazı yeni sonuçlar vermiştir. Ġlk dönem kazı çalışmalarında Orta Tunç Çağı tabakaların tarihlendirilmesinin daha çok göreli tarihleme yöntemleri ile yapılması ve V. tabakadan elde edilen radyokarbon analiz sonucunun arkeolojik verilerle desteklenmemesinden ötürü tabakaların tarihlenmesinin tatmin edici bir düzeye ulaşmamasına neden olmuştur. Yeni yapılan kazılar sonucunda V ve IVc ile ilişkilendirilen 10. ve 7. Tabakadan elde edilen radyokarbon analiz sonuçları bu tabakaların daha önce önerilen tarihlerden daha erkene çekilmesi gerektiğini göstermiştir. With the beginning of the second millennium BC, a process was introduced in Western Anatolia in the context of both cultural and social organization, where more complex and local elements came to the fore. In Beycesultan Höyük, the cultural aspects of this process, which can be monitored without interruption, are of great importance, especially in terms of enlightening the cultural and chronological process of Central Western Anatolia. Excavations in Beycesultan Höyük in recent years have focused on the Middle Bronze Age and Late Bronze Age levels. As a result of these studies, the stratification of Beycesultan Höyük has been changed to a great extent. The Middle Bronze Age levels of Beycesultan Höyük, which constitute the subject of this project, are in the old stratification V and IV, 10-7 in new stratification. The Middle Bronze Age levels, which have been explored by us during the 2012-2019 excavation seasons, are still in their infancy, but have already yielded some new results, especially in a chronological context. In the early excavations, the dating of the Middle Bronze Age layers was mostly done with relative dating methods, and the result of the radiocarbon analysis obtained from the 5th layer was not supported by archaeological data, which caused the dating of the layers to not reach a satisfactory level. Radiocarbon analysis results obtained from Layers 10 and 7 associated with V and IVc as a result of the new excavations showed that these layers should be pulled earlier than the previously suggested dates.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Ege University Insti...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Ege University Insti...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao