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  • Authors: Kevin Costello;

    Orders issued by justices operating the poor law in seventeenth and eighteenth century England – orders for removing paupers, orders for the maintenance of bastard children, orders adjudicating poor rate appeals – generated vast quantities of litigation. Most of that litigation was by way of appeal to Quarter Sessions; but a small number of cases went further, to the King's Bench, by way of certiorari. This account examines this litigation phenomenon from several vantage points: from the perspective of the King's Bench (which innovated procedures to regulate certiorari, and which expanded its means of reviewing legal error through the development of the special case); from the perspective of Parliament (which was required to respond to demands by justices that the process be abolished); and from the perspective of contemporary commentators (who were critical of the money wasted by parishes litigating in the King's Bench).

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Zouache, Abbès;

    In this article, I revisit some aspects of the organization of the Fatimid army, and more specifijically to the role played by its black contingents, who are still often considered the most faithful supporters of the dynasty. Wherever they came from and regardless of their social and legal status, black soldiers, whose Egyptian-ness was indisputable, were major players in the history of the Fatimid Caliphate. Medieval authors, who sometimes conveyed negative representations linked with racial bias, and who are not necessarily accurate in dealing with other races, even acknowledged this role. Originating in Ifrīqiyya, the Fatimids conquered Egypt at the end of the tenth century CE. They established a Shi’i caliphate that disappeared in the last quarter of the twelfth century. The Fatimid caliphs adopted a policy of expansion. This expansion was ideological, led by the Ismaili Daʿwa, especially in Yemen and the Persian Gulf. It was also economic: the Fatimid state, which was largely based on trade, created an extensive road and maritime network for economic purposes. Finally, it was a political and military one, as the Fatimid caliphs extended their influence to southern Syria and Arabia.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Northeast African St...arrow_drop_down
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  • Authors: Orazio Coco;

    In March 1899, about one year before the Boxers’ siege at the diplomatic quarter in Beijing (June 1900), the Kingdom of Italy presented an ultimatum to the imperial government of China, aiming to t...

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  • Authors: Dartigues, Laurent;

    La démocratie contre les experts est un essai marquant. Il éclaire un aspect méconnu de l'esclavage antique que l'histoire en général et l'histoire économique en particulier ont négligé au profit de l'esclavage de plantation. Il porte aussi une réflexion sur la nature de démocratie, car les esclaves publics assurent les tâches administratives de la cité que la démocratie grecque place ainsi hors du politique. Elle interroge donc la démocratie actuelle qui privilégie l'administration des choses au gouvernement des hommes. Inversement, l'histoire économique peut utilement interroger la place et le rôle des esclaves publics qui participent à l'administration de la vie économique, en particulier dans le domaine du contrôle des monnaies. Et susciter ainsi un dialogue fécond pour ouvrir de nouveaux chantiers quant à la compréhension de l'origine des monnaies dans les cités antiques grecques. Democracy’s Slaves is a remarkable essay. Not only does it illuminate a little-known aspect of ancient slavery that history in general and economic history in particular has neglected in favor of plantation slavery. But it also reflects on the nature of democracy, insofar as public slaves perform the administrative tasks of the city, which Athenian democracy places out of politics. The Greek solution questions the current democracy, which is more about the administration of things than the government of men. Conversely, economic history can usefully question the place and role of public slaves, particularly those responsible for controlling currencies, and encourage a fruitful dialogue to open new studies for understanding the origin of currencies in ancient Greek cities.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Hajek, Kim M.;

    The case of Félida X and her ‘doubled personality’ served in the last quarter of the 19th century as a proving ground for a distinctively French form of psychology that bore the stamp of physiology, including the comparative term normal state. Debates around Félida’s case provided the occasion for reflection about how that term and its opposites could take their places in the emerging discursive field of psychopathology. This article centres its analysis on Eugène Azam’s 1876–77 study of Félida, and the ways his framing of the case was adopted or critiqued by subsequent researchers. Azam initially deployed the label normal state in a routine manner, in contrast to his use of condition seconde to designate Félida’s other state; this pairing served, I argue, to anchor the scientific legitimacy of Félida’s extraordinary psychological manifestations. Unpacking the conceptual associations of Azam’s use of normal state, we find it marked as qualitatively distinct, temporally fixed, and most of all individualized; this without becoming normative. It was only through responses to and criticism of Azam’s study that there emerged a more generalized sense of normality against which pathological (hysteric) subjects’ comportment could be contrasted. Félida’s case itself constitutes a highly individualized reconfiguration of the concept of a normal state, while the subsequent framing of doubled mental states provides a valuable vantage point from which to consider the articulations between the language of emerging French psychology and its evolving subjects of enquiry.

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    History of the Human Sciences
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Mossuz-Lavau, Janine;

    This article examines the electoral support that President Nicolas Sarkozy has enjoyed from French women, his appointment of women to positions of responsibility, and the public policies initiated by him that affect women’s lives. In his 2007 election victory, Sarkozy enjoyed similar levels of support among both sexes among most age groups, though older women tended to favor him more than their male peers. In the run-up to the 2012 elections, support for him was generally lower among women than among men. Sarkozy’s term of office opened with a fanfare, trumpeting a government composed equally of men and women. By the end of his five-year term, the proportion of women in government had fallen to scarcely a quarter. Regarding economic inequalities between men and women, despite a number of measures favoring women in the business world, Sarkozy’s five-year term largely failed to deliver the changes promised by him as a candidate in 2007. communication, “Sarkozy and Women”, International Symposium “Sarkozy’s France, 2007-2012”, Institute for Contemporary French and Francophone Studies, Floride, State University Tallahassee, February 20-21 2012

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao SPIRE - Sciences Po ...arrow_drop_down
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    Contemporary French and Francophone Studies
    Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Patrick Meyer; Gregory Ponthiere;

    Although it is widely acknowledged that life is risky, it is difficult to provide an intuitiveindicator of the riskiness of life, whose metric would have a concrete counterpart for the layman.This paper uses the Shannon entropy index to the base 2 to quantify, in terms of bits (i.e. the amount of information revealed by tossing a fair coin), the risk relative to the age at death in 37 countries from the Human Mortality Database. We identify 5 major stylized facts: (1) over the last two centuries, (period) life entropy at birth exhibits an inverted U shape pattern with a maximum in the first half of the 20th century (at about 6 bits); (2) over the last 150 years, Western countries have converged in terms of (period) life entropy at birth towards levels of 5.6 bits for men and 5.5 bits for women; (3) curves of (period) life entropy at birth for men and women crossed during the 20th century; (4) the entropy age profi le shifted from a non-monotonic profi le (in the 18th and 19th centuries) to a strictly decreasing pro file (in the 20th and 21th centuries); (5) men exhibit a higher life entropy than women below ages 50-55, and a lower one after ages 50-55.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Cliometricaarrow_drop_down
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    Cliometrica
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    Cliometrica
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Kevin Costello;

    Orders issued by justices operating the poor law in seventeenth and eighteenth century England – orders for removing paupers, orders for the maintenance of bastard children, orders adjudicating poor rate appeals – generated vast quantities of litigation. Most of that litigation was by way of appeal to Quarter Sessions; but a small number of cases went further, to the King's Bench, by way of certiorari. This account examines this litigation phenomenon from several vantage points: from the perspective of the King's Bench (which innovated procedures to regulate certiorari, and which expanded its means of reviewing legal error through the development of the special case); from the perspective of Parliament (which was required to respond to demands by justices that the process be abolished); and from the perspective of contemporary commentators (who were critical of the money wasted by parishes litigating in the King's Bench).

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Zouache, Abbès;

    In this article, I revisit some aspects of the organization of the Fatimid army, and more specifijically to the role played by its black contingents, who are still often considered the most faithful supporters of the dynasty. Wherever they came from and regardless of their social and legal status, black soldiers, whose Egyptian-ness was indisputable, were major players in the history of the Fatimid Caliphate. Medieval authors, who sometimes conveyed negative representations linked with racial bias, and who are not necessarily accurate in dealing with other races, even acknowledged this role. Originating in Ifrīqiyya, the Fatimids conquered Egypt at the end of the tenth century CE. They established a Shi’i caliphate that disappeared in the last quarter of the twelfth century. The Fatimid caliphs adopted a policy of expansion. This expansion was ideological, led by the Ismaili Daʿwa, especially in Yemen and the Persian Gulf. It was also economic: the Fatimid state, which was largely based on trade, created an extensive road and maritime network for economic purposes. Finally, it was a political and military one, as the Fatimid caliphs extended their influence to southern Syria and Arabia.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Northeast African St...arrow_drop_down
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  • Authors: Orazio Coco;

    In March 1899, about one year before the Boxers’ siege at the diplomatic quarter in Beijing (June 1900), the Kingdom of Italy presented an ultimatum to the imperial government of China, aiming to t...

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  • Authors: Dartigues, Laurent;

    La démocratie contre les experts est un essai marquant. Il éclaire un aspect méconnu de l'esclavage antique que l'histoire en général et l'histoire économique en particulier ont négligé au profit de l'esclavage de plantation. Il porte aussi une réflexion sur la nature de démocratie, car les esclaves publics assurent les tâches administratives de la cité que la démocratie grecque place ainsi hors du politique. Elle interroge donc la démocratie actuelle qui privilégie l'administration des choses au gouvernement des hommes. Inversement, l'histoire économique peut utilement interroger la place et le rôle des esclaves publics qui participent à l'administration de la vie économique, en particulier dans le domaine du contrôle des monnaies. Et susciter ainsi un dialogue fécond pour ouvrir de nouveaux chantiers quant à la compréhension de l'origine des monnaies dans les cités antiques grecques. Democracy’s Slaves is a remarkable essay. Not only does it illuminate a little-known aspect of ancient slavery that history in general and economic history in particular has neglected in favor of plantation slavery. But it also reflects on the nature of democracy, insofar as public slaves perform the administrative tasks of the city, which Athenian democracy places out of politics. The Greek solution questions the current democracy, which is more about the administration of things than the government of men. Conversely, economic history can usefully question the place and role of public slaves, particularly those responsible for controlling currencies, and encourage a fruitful dialogue to open new studies for understanding the origin of currencies in ancient Greek cities.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Hajek, Kim M.;

    The case of Félida X and her ‘doubled personality’ served in the last quarter of the 19th century as a proving ground for a distinctively French form of psychology that bore the stamp of physiology, including the comparative term normal state. Debates around Félida’s case provided the occasion for reflection about how that term and its opposites could take their places in the emerging discursive field of psychopathology. This article centres its analysis on Eugène Azam’s 1876–77 study of Félida, and the ways his framing of the case was adopted or critiqued by subsequent researchers. Azam initially deployed the label normal state in a routine manner, in contrast to his use of condition seconde to designate Félida’s other state; this pairing served, I argue, to anchor the scientific legitimacy of Félida’s extraordinary psychological manifestations. Unpacking the conceptual associations of Azam’s use of normal state, we find it marked as qualitatively distinct, temporally fixed, and most of all individualized; this without becoming normative. It was only through responses to and criticism of Azam’s study that there emerged a more generalized sense of normality against which pathological (hysteric) subjects’ comportment could be contrasted. Félida’s case itself constitutes a highly individualized reconfiguration of the concept of a normal state, while the subsequent framing of doubled mental states provides a valuable vantage point from which to consider the articulations between the language of emerging French psychology and its evolving subjects of enquiry.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ History of the Human...arrow_drop_down
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    History of the Human Sciences
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ History of the Human...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      History of the Human Sciences
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Mossuz-Lavau, Janine;

    This article examines the electoral support that President Nicolas Sarkozy has enjoyed from French women, his appointment of women to positions of responsibility, and the public policies initiated by him that affect women’s lives. In his 2007 election victory, Sarkozy enjoyed similar levels of support among both sexes among most age groups, though older women tended to favor him more than their male peers. In the run-up to the 2012 elections, support for him was generally lower among women than among men. Sarkozy’s term of office opened with a fanfare, trumpeting a government composed equally of men and women. By the end of his five-year term, the proportion of women in government had fallen to scarcely a quarter. Regarding economic inequalities between men and women, despite a number of measures favoring women in the business world, Sarkozy’s five-year term largely failed to deliver the changes promised by him as a candidate in 2007. communication, “Sarkozy and Women”, International Symposium “Sarkozy’s France, 2007-2012”, Institute for Contemporary French and Francophone Studies, Floride, State University Tallahassee, February 20-21 2012

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao SPIRE - Sciences Po ...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Contemporary French and Francophone Studies
    Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Patrick Meyer; Gregory Ponthiere;

    Although it is widely acknowledged that life is risky, it is difficult to provide an intuitiveindicator of the riskiness of life, whose metric would have a concrete counterpart for the layman.This paper uses the Shannon entropy index to the base 2 to quantify, in terms of bits (i.e. the amount of information revealed by tossing a fair coin), the risk relative to the age at death in 37 countries from the Human Mortality Database. We identify 5 major stylized facts: (1) over the last two centuries, (period) life entropy at birth exhibits an inverted U shape pattern with a maximum in the first half of the 20th century (at about 6 bits); (2) over the last 150 years, Western countries have converged in terms of (period) life entropy at birth towards levels of 5.6 bits for men and 5.5 bits for women; (3) curves of (period) life entropy at birth for men and women crossed during the 20th century; (4) the entropy age profi le shifted from a non-monotonic profi le (in the 18th and 19th centuries) to a strictly decreasing pro file (in the 20th and 21th centuries); (5) men exhibit a higher life entropy than women below ages 50-55, and a lower one after ages 50-55.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Cliometricaarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Cliometrica
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Cliometrica
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Springer TDM
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