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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Alekseienko, N. A.;

    Поступила в редакцию: 18.08.2023. Принята к печати: 12.10.2023. Submitted: 18.08.2023. Accepted: 12.10.2023. Особенности и специфика денежного обращения Таврики периода классического Средневековья хорошо известны современным специалистам по византийской нумизматике. Они характеризуются пестротой денежного рынка и широким разнообразием эмитентов. Благодаря новым открытиям география памятников крымской нумизматики поздневизантийской эпохи постоянно расширяется и дополняется важными и ценными сведениями. Среди нумизматических находок периода распада Византийской империи и ее реставрации кроме местных выпусков нередко встречаются и деньги, «привезенные из-за моря», которые так или иначе обращались на рынках Таврики. Это монеты Трапезундской и Никейской империй, государств крестоносцев и самой возрожденной Византии. Сегодня это в очередной раз подтверждается вводимыми в научный оборот монетами Великих Комнинов: фолларо Иоанна III (1342–1344) и аспрами Мануила III (1390–1417) и Иоанна IV (1446–1458); иперперона-номисмы никейского императора Иоанна III Дуки Ватаца (1222–1254); денье турнуа Афинского герцогства Гильома I де ла Роша (1280–1287), динаро Торнезе генуэзской администрации Хиоса чеканки 1477–1487 гг., тетартерона Андроника II Палеолога (1282–1328) и рядом других нумизматических артефактов. Новые находки являются важным свидетельством не только торгово-экономических связей Юго-Западной Таврики с регионами Южного Причерноморья, Балкан и Средиземноморья, но и яркой иллюстрацией тех административных и политических процессов, которые существовали в Причерноморье в поздневизантийский период. The specifics of the monetary circulation of the Taurica during the classical Middle Ages are well known to modern specialists in Byzantine numismatics. It is characterized by the diversity of the money market and a wide variety of issuers. There appeared new discoveries expanding the geography and direction of the Crimean numismatic monuments from the Late Byzantine Period and replenishing them with important information. Among the numismatic finds from the period when the Byzantine Empire collapsed and, later, restored, there are local issues along with, so to speak, the money “brought from across the sea,” which circulated in the markets of the Taurica in this or that way. The coins in question comprised of the money minted by the Empires of Trebizond and Nicaea, Crusader states, and renovated Byzantium. Today, the said interpretation gets extra support from the finds to be introduced into the scholarship: the coins of Megaloi Komnenoi, such as a follaro of John III (1342–1344) and aspri of Manuel III (1390–1417) and John IV (1446–1458); a hyperpyron nomisma of Emperor John III Doukas Vatatzes (1222–1254) of Nicaea; a denier tournois of Doux Guillaume (William) I de la Roche (1280–1287) of Athens; a denaro tornese minted by the Genoese government of Chios in 1477–1487; a copper tetarteron of Andronikos II Palaiologos (1282–1328); and some other finds. These new coins are important evidence of trade and economic relations of the south-western Taurica with the regions of the Southern Black Sea, the Balkans and the Mediterranean and an impressive illustration of the administrative and political processes in the Black Sea area in Late Byzantine Period.

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  • Статья посвящена отражению в нумизматике (монетах и монетовидных жетонах) воссоединения Крыма с Россией в 2014 г. Приведены все монеты России и Украины, а также некоторые жетоны за прошедшие пять лет. В контексте современной политической конъюнктуры проанализированы изображения на них. Российские монеты и жетоны имеют в основном эмблематические изображения, в отличие от украинских, которые имеют более пропагандистские и символические изображения. Российские монеты чекана 2014—2018 гг. во многом были вторичны по отношению к украинским монетам более раннего периода, и во многом освещали те же достопримечательности, но с иных ракурсов. №4(13) (2019)

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  • This article provides a brief overview of the problems that are directly related to the phenomenon of counterfeiting. This article fully covers the concept of counterfeiting. The history of the false money supply is investigated. The article considers the ways of making and selling counterfeit money in the world at different times, as well as the responsibility for making counterfeit coins and bills. Various methods of determining the authenticity of banknotes are described. The dynamics of counterfeit Bank of Russia banknotes revealed in the banking system of the Russian Federation over the past six years (2014-2019) is considered. The article also reflects the main reasons for the existence of counterfeit coins and bills at the present time. The role of counterfeiting in the modern economy of the Russian Federation and its impact on its structure is determined. Данная статья содержит краткий обзор проблем, которые непосредственно связанны с таким явлением как фальшивомонетничество. В настоящей статье в полной мере охвачено понятие фальшивомонетчества. Исследована история возникновения фальшивой денежной массы. Рассматриваются способы изготовления и сбыта поддельных денег в мире в разные периоды времени, ответственность за изготовление поддельных монет и купюр. Изложены различные приемы определения подлинности денежных знаков. Рассмотрена динамика поддельных денежных знаков Банка России, выявленных в банковской системе Российской Федерации за последние шесть лет (2014-2019 гг.). Так же в статье отражены основные причины существования поддельных монет и купюр в настоящее время. Определена роль фальшивомонетничества в современной экономике Российской Федерации и воздействие на ее структуру. Актуальные вопросы современной экономики, Выпуск 6 2020

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Choref, M. M.;

    The article is devoted to revealing the reasons for appearance of saint horsemen images on the Black Sea Littoral Christian States’ coins in the XIII—XV centuries. It was observed that the idea of placing the images of horseback governors on coins was typical for Rome and early Byzantium. In the VIII century one refused it as it did not correspond with the new ideas on the essence of the emperor’s power. Horsemen appeared again on the region Christian states’ coins only in the XIII century. The idea of their placing on the coins was borrowed from Seljuqs. The difference consisted only in replacing the weapon in governor’s hands with the scepter. The author supposes that the images of horseback governors of the XIII—XIV centuries should be considered triumphal, glorifying the emperors. The images of saints, apparently, facilitated the distribution of the ideas about participation of Church and saints themselves in controlling the state where coins were minted. Thus, functions of defenders of Black Sea littoral area habitants from external danger were attributed to the horseback saints, represented on the coins. Other reason is seen by the author in placement of similar images on the coins of the Second Bulgarian Empire. Besides, the author proposes an explanation for placement of the horsemen images on both sides of the coins Статья посвящена выяснению причин появления изображений святых всадников на монетах христианских государств Причерноморья в XIII—XV вв. Было прослежено, что идея размещения изображений конных правителей была свойственна Риму и ранней Византии. В VIII веке от нее отказались, так как она не соответствовала новым представлениям о сущности императорской власти. Всадники вновь появились на монетах христианских государств региона только в XIII веке. Идею их размещения заимствовали у Сельджуков. Отличие состояло лишь в том, что оружие в руках правителя было заменено на диканикий. Автор полагает, что изображения конных правителей XIII—XIV вв. следует трактовать как триумфальные, возвеличивающие императоров. Изображения же святых, по-видимому, способствовали распространению представлений о сопричастности Церкви и собственно святого к управлению государством, где чеканились монеты. Таким образом, конным святым, изображенным на монетах, приписывались функции защитников жителей Причерноморья от внешней опасности. Другую причину усматривает автор в размещении подобных изображений на монетах Второго Болгарского царства. Кроме того, автор дает объяснение размещению изображения всадников на обеих сторонах монет

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ДРЕВНЯЯ РУСЬ ВОПРОСЫ...arrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Nataliya V. Zolotova;

    On the basis of economic analysis the author showed competitive struggle for the leading positions in the world rating of producers of investment gold coins. Interrelation between the volume of coins issue in conditions of economic crisis and investment, marketing, innovation decisions affecting their demand and supply was disclosed. The development of the situation on the market of investment gold coins was projected. The author points out to the constant increase in the role of investment in gold coins and its future prospects. She developed a methodological approach to the analysis of investment by countries, conducted their comparative analysis in respect to investment in Russia and showed the influence of the most important political and economic events in the world.

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  • The article is a retrospective of the ruble's development, telling the story of its ups and downs as a result of various reforms and crises. The author considers the national currency in terms of purchasing power, as well as the equivalent value in honey, silver or gold. The article attempts to conduct a retrospective of the ruble over the past five centuries and reveal the history of the country's long pursuit of the goal of creating and modernizing its monetary system, having its own stable currency, as well as to show the purchasing power of the ruble over the past 500 years. The author describes the first Russian currency system formed in the first half of the 16th century, describes the monetary reforms of the 17th century, the introduction of monetary notes in the 18th century, the large-scale monetary reforms of S. Yu. Witte, and the decline of the Russian ruble in the post-revolutionary period. Статья представляет собой ретроспективу развития рубля, рассказывая историю его взлетов и падений в результате различных реформ и кризисов. Автор рассматривает национальную валюту с точки зрения покупательной способности, а также эквивалентной стоимости в меде, серебре или золоте. В статье сделана попытка провести ретроспективу рубля за пять последних столетий и раскрыть историю долгого стремления страны к поставленной цели – созданию и модернизации своей денежной системы, наличию собственной стабильной валюты, а также показать покупательную способность рубля в течение последних 500 лет. Автор характеризует первую российскую валютную систему, сформированную в первой половине 16 века, описывает денежные реформы 17 века, внедрение денежных ассигнаций в 18 веке, масштабные денежные реформы С.Ю.Витте, и упадок российского рубля в послереволюционное время. Вопросы устойчивого развития общества, Выпуск 3 (2) 2020

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    Authors: Chkhaidze, V. N.;

    В работе критически рассматривается книга К. И. Бабаева, посвященная нумизматике Тмутаракани. Со временем продолжительного пребывания в Тмутаракани князя Мстислава Владимировича (988–1023 гг.) связана чеканка монеты – подражаний византийским милиарисиям Василия II и Константина VIII. Вероятная граница окончания выпуска – третья четверть XI в. Правление князя Ростислава Владимировича (1065–1066 гг.) в Тмутаракани знаменуется вероятной чеканкой серебряных подражаний византийскому 2/3 милиарисию Константина X Дуки. При Романе Святославиче (до 1079 г.) в Тмутаракани выпускаются именные биллоновые брактеаты. Посаднику Ратибору (1079–1081 гг.) принадлежит значительное количество печатей с надписью «От Ратибора». По образу печатей чеканились монеты Ратибора из биллона и серебра. В 80-е гг. X в. в Тмутаракани начинается чеканка серебряных монет с изображением небесного покровителя князя Олега Святославича (1083–1094 гг.) – архангела Михаила. Прототипом этого чекана являлись монеты императора Михаила VII Дуки, а также печати Романа Святославича. Одновременно здесь известны и медные монеты с греческой надписью, которые могли выполнять функцию церемониальных раздач. This article is devoted to the critical review of the book of K. I. Babayev about numismatics of Tmutarakan. Conclusions of this book and results of other researches show monetary business of Tmutarakan as follows: coin stamping – imitations Vasily II and Konstantin VIII Byzantian miliarisiya are connected with long stay prince Mstislav Vladimirovich (988–1023) in Tmutarakan. There were some deteriorations of a prototype of Byzantian miliarisiya in degradation degree: the earliest group of imitations is made of silver, further appear billon coins of more bad stamping, last stage – stamping coins of copper and iron. Probable time of the termination of release is the third quarter of XI century. Thus, these coins originally were the basic means of monetary circulation of Tmutarakan, and then carried out function of a small change. The board of prince Rostislav Vladimirovich (1065–1066) in Tmutarakan is marked by probable stamping of silver imitations Byzantian 2/3 Konstantin X Duca's miliarisiya. Nominal billon brakteats appears at prince Roman Svyatoslavich (till 1079) in Tmutarakan. Their prototype is the seal of the same prince. To Ratibor who was the one not a princely origin (1079–1081) belongs a significant amount of the seals with an inscription «От Ратибора» which have a wide circulation in territory of Ancient Rus. Coins of Ratibor were minted of billon and silver like the seals. Apparently, coin stamping has been caused by shortage of coins in Tmutarakan. Stamping of silver coins with the image of the heavenly patron of the prince Oleg Svjatoslavich (1083–1094) – the archangel Michael begins in 80th X century in Tmutarakan. Prototypes were coins of emperor Mikhail VII Duca, and also Roman Svjatoslavich’s seal. Coins are close to imperial standards in weight norms. This is one more proof to assertion that the city was in vassal submission by Byzantium in Oleg's board in Tmutarakan. Copper coins with the Greek inscription are known here in these time. These coins could carry out function of ceremonial distributions.

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    In the course of excavations of tower-looking constructions around fifty identifiable coins were found, in various years, at the borders of the faraway Chora in the European part of the Bosporan Kingdom, most notably, near the Uzunlar rampart. Mostly, these are coins minted in Panticapaeum in the second quarter–the middle of the 1st century BC (Mithradates, Pharnaces, Mahar) and coins minted in the first years of Asandr’s ruling. Singular coins are dated to the 3rd century BC and the end of the 2nd century BC as well as the end of the 1st century BC – 1st century AD. Basically, they characterize distinctive features of the mintage and money in circulation in rural areas in this part of the Bosporan Kingdom during the period when these fortifications were in use, which, as demonstrated in written sources and by archaeological finds, was very short, i. e. between 47 and 9 BC. При раскопках башнеобразных построек на границах дальней хоры Европейского Боспора, и прежде всего близ Узунларского вала, в разные годы было найдено до полусотни монет, поддающихся определению. Большей частью это монеты, чеканенные в Пантикапее во второй четверти – середине I в. до н. э. (Митридат, Фарнак, Махар), затем идут монеты первых лет правления Асандра. Единичные экземпляры датируются III и концом II вв. до н. э., а также концом I в. до н. э. – I в. н. э. В целом они характеризуют особенности монетного дела и денежного обращения на пространствах сельской территории этой части Боспорского государства в период существования данных укреплений, который, согласно письменным источникам и археологическим находкам, был очень коротким: между 47 и 9 гг. до н. э. №250 (2018)

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  • Monetary industry combines several stages of metallurgical processes, which are continuously improved with the development of technology and the level of knowledge in the field of non-ferrous metals. The graduates of the Mining Institute, metallurgists of several generations, took part in establishment the Mint and development of technology to produce coins. Since January 24, 1718, when Peter the Great signed the decree on production of small and large coins ... , the history of the monetary system of Russia and the coining of the first silver rubles began, which subsequently formed the basis of money relations. Twenty-four graduates of the mining and metallurgical departments of the Mining University worked as heads and mnzmeister of the Mint. Silver rubles and work of Russian mnzmeisters provided financial stability in Tsarist Russia from 1718 to 1917 and laid the foundation for further development of the monetary industry, taking into account new knowledge in the field of enrichment, preparation of polymetallic ores and their melting, and also stamping and processing of precious metals. This is the history of Russia and St. Petersburg, it combined the history of the Mining University, which this year will be 245 years old. It is of scientific interest to restore historical justice and update the methodological knowledge in the field of technology of monetary industry and metallurgical processes. Монетное дело сочетает в себе несколько стадий металлургических процессов, которые непрерывно совершенствуются с развитием техники и уровня знаний в области металлургии цветных металлов. Именно выпускники Горного института, металлурги нескольких поколений принимали участие в становлении Монетного двора и развитии технологии производства монет. С 24 января 1718 г., когда был подписан Указ Петра I о делании мелкой и крупной монеты , началась история денежной системы России и выпуска первых серебряных рублей, которые впоследствии явились основой денежных отношений. Двадцать четыре выпускника горного и металлургического факультетов Горного университета работали управляющими и минцмейстерами Монетного двора. Серебряные рубли и труд отечественных минцмейстеров обеспечивали финансовую стабильность в Царской России с 1718 по 1917годы и заложили фундамент для дальнейшего развития монетного дела с учетом новых знаний в области обогащения, подготовки полиметаллических руд и их плавления, а также штамповки и обработки благородных металлов. Это история России и Санкт-Петербурга, которая объединила и историю Горного университета, которому в этом году исполняется 245лет. Представляет научный интерес восстановление исторической справедливости и обновление методических знаний в области технологии монетного дела и металлургических процессов. №230(2) (2018)

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Alekseienko, N. A.;

    Поступила в редакцию: 18.08.2023. Принята к печати: 12.10.2023. Submitted: 18.08.2023. Accepted: 12.10.2023. Особенности и специфика денежного обращения Таврики периода классического Средневековья хорошо известны современным специалистам по византийской нумизматике. Они характеризуются пестротой денежного рынка и широким разнообразием эмитентов. Благодаря новым открытиям география памятников крымской нумизматики поздневизантийской эпохи постоянно расширяется и дополняется важными и ценными сведениями. Среди нумизматических находок периода распада Византийской империи и ее реставрации кроме местных выпусков нередко встречаются и деньги, «привезенные из-за моря», которые так или иначе обращались на рынках Таврики. Это монеты Трапезундской и Никейской империй, государств крестоносцев и самой возрожденной Византии. Сегодня это в очередной раз подтверждается вводимыми в научный оборот монетами Великих Комнинов: фолларо Иоанна III (1342–1344) и аспрами Мануила III (1390–1417) и Иоанна IV (1446–1458); иперперона-номисмы никейского императора Иоанна III Дуки Ватаца (1222–1254); денье турнуа Афинского герцогства Гильома I де ла Роша (1280–1287), динаро Торнезе генуэзской администрации Хиоса чеканки 1477–1487 гг., тетартерона Андроника II Палеолога (1282–1328) и рядом других нумизматических артефактов. Новые находки являются важным свидетельством не только торгово-экономических связей Юго-Западной Таврики с регионами Южного Причерноморья, Балкан и Средиземноморья, но и яркой иллюстрацией тех административных и политических процессов, которые существовали в Причерноморье в поздневизантийский период. The specifics of the monetary circulation of the Taurica during the classical Middle Ages are well known to modern specialists in Byzantine numismatics. It is characterized by the diversity of the money market and a wide variety of issuers. There appeared new discoveries expanding the geography and direction of the Crimean numismatic monuments from the Late Byzantine Period and replenishing them with important information. Among the numismatic finds from the period when the Byzantine Empire collapsed and, later, restored, there are local issues along with, so to speak, the money “brought from across the sea,” which circulated in the markets of the Taurica in this or that way. The coins in question comprised of the money minted by the Empires of Trebizond and Nicaea, Crusader states, and renovated Byzantium. Today, the said interpretation gets extra support from the finds to be introduced into the scholarship: the coins of Megaloi Komnenoi, such as a follaro of John III (1342–1344) and aspri of Manuel III (1390–1417) and John IV (1446–1458); a hyperpyron nomisma of Emperor John III Doukas Vatatzes (1222–1254) of Nicaea; a denier tournois of Doux Guillaume (William) I de la Roche (1280–1287) of Athens; a denaro tornese minted by the Genoese government of Chios in 1477–1487; a copper tetarteron of Andronikos II Palaiologos (1282–1328); and some other finds. These new coins are important evidence of trade and economic relations of the south-western Taurica with the regions of the Southern Black Sea, the Balkans and the Mediterranean and an impressive illustration of the administrative and political processes in the Black Sea area in Late Byzantine Period.

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  • Статья посвящена отражению в нумизматике (монетах и монетовидных жетонах) воссоединения Крыма с Россией в 2014 г. Приведены все монеты России и Украины, а также некоторые жетоны за прошедшие пять лет. В контексте современной политической конъюнктуры проанализированы изображения на них. Российские монеты и жетоны имеют в основном эмблематические изображения, в отличие от украинских, которые имеют более пропагандистские и символические изображения. Российские монеты чекана 2014—2018 гг. во многом были вторичны по отношению к украинским монетам более раннего периода, и во многом освещали те же достопримечательности, но с иных ракурсов. №4(13) (2019)

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  • This article provides a brief overview of the problems that are directly related to the phenomenon of counterfeiting. This article fully covers the concept of counterfeiting. The history of the false money supply is investigated. The article considers the ways of making and selling counterfeit money in the world at different times, as well as the responsibility for making counterfeit coins and bills. Various methods of determining the authenticity of banknotes are described. The dynamics of counterfeit Bank of Russia banknotes revealed in the banking system of the Russian Federation over the past six years (2014-2019) is considered. The article also reflects the main reasons for the existence of counterfeit coins and bills at the present time. The role of counterfeiting in the modern economy of the Russian Federation and its impact on its structure is determined. Данная статья содержит краткий обзор проблем, которые непосредственно связанны с таким явлением как фальшивомонетничество. В настоящей статье в полной мере охвачено понятие фальшивомонетчества. Исследована история возникновения фальшивой денежной массы. Рассматриваются способы изготовления и сбыта поддельных денег в мире в разные периоды времени, ответственность за изготовление поддельных монет и купюр. Изложены различные приемы определения подлинности денежных знаков. Рассмотрена динамика поддельных денежных знаков Банка России, выявленных в банковской системе Российской Федерации за последние шесть лет (2014-2019 гг.). Так же в статье отражены основные причины существования поддельных монет и купюр в настоящее время. Определена роль фальшивомонетничества в современной экономике Российской Федерации и воздействие на ее структуру. Актуальные вопросы современной экономики, Выпуск 6 2020

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    Authors: Choref, M. M.;

    The article is devoted to revealing the reasons for appearance of saint horsemen images on the Black Sea Littoral Christian States’ coins in the XIII—XV centuries. It was observed that the idea of placing the images of horseback governors on coins was typical for Rome and early Byzantium. In the VIII century one refused it as it did not correspond with the new ideas on the essence of the emperor’s power. Horsemen appeared again on the region Christian states’ coins only in the XIII century. The idea of their placing on the coins was borrowed from Seljuqs. The difference consisted only in replacing the weapon in governor’s hands with the scepter. The author supposes that the images of horseback governors of the XIII—XIV centuries should be considered triumphal, glorifying the emperors. The images of saints, apparently, facilitated the distribution of the ideas about participation of Church and saints themselves in controlling the state where coins were minted. Thus, functions of defenders of Black Sea littoral area habitants from external danger were attributed to the horseback saints, represented on the coins. Other reason is seen by the author in placement of similar images on the coins of the Second Bulgarian Empire. Besides, the author proposes an explanation for placement of the horsemen images on both sides of the coins Статья посвящена выяснению причин появления изображений святых всадников на монетах христианских государств Причерноморья в XIII—XV вв. Было прослежено, что идея размещения изображений конных правителей была свойственна Риму и ранней Византии. В VIII веке от нее отказались, так как она не соответствовала новым представлениям о сущности императорской власти. Всадники вновь появились на монетах христианских государств региона только в XIII веке. Идею их размещения заимствовали у Сельджуков. Отличие состояло лишь в том, что оружие в руках правителя было заменено на диканикий. Автор полагает, что изображения конных правителей XIII—XIV вв. следует трактовать как триумфальные, возвеличивающие императоров. Изображения же святых, по-видимому, способствовали распространению представлений о сопричастности Церкви и собственно святого к управлению государством, где чеканились монеты. Таким образом, конным святым, изображенным на монетах, приписывались функции защитников жителей Причерноморья от внешней опасности. Другую причину усматривает автор в размещении подобных изображений на монетах Второго Болгарского царства. Кроме того, автор дает объяснение размещению изображения всадников на обеих сторонах монет

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Authors: Nataliya V. Zolotova;

    On the basis of economic analysis the author showed competitive struggle for the leading positions in the world rating of producers of investment gold coins. Interrelation between the volume of coins issue in conditions of economic crisis and investment, marketing, innovation decisions affecting their demand and supply was disclosed. The development of the situation on the market of investment gold coins was projected. The author points out to the constant increase in the role of investment in gold coins and its future prospects. She developed a methodological approach to the analysis of investment by countries, conducted their comparative analysis in respect to investment in Russia and showed the influence of the most important political and economic events in the world.

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  • The article is a retrospective of the ruble's development, telling the story of its ups and downs as a result of various reforms and crises. The author considers the national currency in terms of purchasing power, as well as the equivalent value in honey, silver or gold. The article attempts to conduct a retrospective of the ruble over the past five centuries and reveal the history of the country's long pursuit of the goal of creating and modernizing its monetary system, having its own stable currency, as well as to show the purchasing power of the ruble over the past 500 years. The author describes the first Russian currency system formed in the first half of the 16th century, describes the monetary reforms of the 17th century, the introduction of monetary notes in the 18th century, the large-scale monetary reforms of S. Yu. Witte, and the decline of the Russian ruble in the post-revolutionary period. Статья представляет собой ретроспективу развития рубля, рассказывая историю его взлетов и падений в результате различных реформ и кризисов. Автор рассматривает национальную валюту с точки зрения покупательной способности, а также эквивалентной стоимости в меде, серебре или золоте. В статье сделана попытка провести ретроспективу рубля за пять последних столетий и раскрыть историю долгого стремления страны к поставленной цели – созданию и модернизации своей денежной системы, наличию собственной стабильной валюты, а также показать покупательную способность рубля в течение последних 500 лет. Автор характеризует первую российскую валютную систему, сформированную в первой половине 16 века, описывает денежные реформы 17 века, внедрение денежных ассигнаций в 18 веке, масштабные денежные реформы С.Ю.Витте, и упадок российского рубля в послереволюционное время. Вопросы устойчивого развития общества, Выпуск 3 (2) 2020

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    Authors: Chkhaidze, V. N.;

    В работе критически рассматривается книга К. И. Бабаева, посвященная нумизматике Тмутаракани. Со временем продолжительного пребывания в Тмутаракани князя Мстислава Владимировича (988–1023 гг.) связана чеканка монеты – подражаний византийским милиарисиям Василия II и Константина VIII. Вероятная граница окончания выпуска – третья четверть XI в. Правление князя Ростислава Владимировича (1065–1066 гг.) в Тмутаракани знаменуется вероятной чеканкой серебряных подражаний византийскому 2/3 милиарисию Константина X Дуки. При Романе Святославиче (до 1079 г.) в Тмутаракани выпускаются именные биллоновые брактеаты. Посаднику Ратибору (1079–1081 гг.) принадлежит значительное количество печатей с надписью «От Ратибора». По образу печатей чеканились монеты Ратибора из биллона и серебра. В 80-е гг. X в. в Тмутаракани начинается чеканка серебряных монет с изображением небесного покровителя князя Олега Святославича (1083–1094 гг.) – архангела Михаила. Прототипом этого чекана являлись монеты императора Михаила VII Дуки, а также печати Романа Святославича. Одновременно здесь известны и медные монеты с греческой надписью, которые могли выполнять функцию церемониальных раздач. This article is devoted to the critical review of the book of K. I. Babayev about numismatics of Tmutarakan. Conclusions of this book and results of other researches show monetary business of Tmutarakan as follows: coin stamping – imitations Vasily II and Konstantin VIII Byzantian miliarisiya are connected with long stay prince Mstislav Vladimirovich (988–1023) in Tmutarakan. There were some deteriorations of a prototype of Byzantian miliarisiya in degradation degree: the earliest group of imitations is made of silver, further appear billon coins of more bad stamping, last stage – stamping coins of copper and iron. Probable time of the termination of release is the third quarter of XI century. Thus, these coins originally were the basic means of monetary circulation of Tmutarakan, and then carried out function of a small change. The board of prince Rostislav Vladimirovich (1065–1066) in Tmutarakan is marked by probable stamping of silver imitations Byzantian 2/3 Konstantin X Duca's miliarisiya. Nominal billon brakteats appears at prince Roman Svyatoslavich (till 1079) in Tmutarakan. Their prototype is the seal of the same prince. To Ratibor who was the one not a princely origin (1079–1081) belongs a significant amount of the seals with an inscription «От Ратибора» which have a wide circulation in territory of Ancient Rus. Coins of Ratibor were minted of billon and silver like the seals. Apparently, coin stamping has been caused by shortage of coins in Tmutarakan. Stamping of silver coins with the image of the heavenly patron of the prince Oleg Svjatoslavich (1083–1094) – the archangel Michael begins in 80th X century in Tmutarakan. Prototypes were coins of emperor Mikhail VII Duca, and also Roman Svjatoslavich’s seal. Coins are close to imperial standards in weight norms. This is one more proof to assertion that the city was in vassal submission by Byzantium in Oleg's board in Tmutarakan. Copper coins with the Greek inscription are known here in these time. These coins could carry out function of ceremonial distributions.

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