Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
In this study we report the underlying reasons to why bacteria are present on banknotes and coins. Despite the use of credit cards, mobile phone apps, near-field-communication systems, and cryptocurrencies such as bitcoins which are replacing the use of hard currencies, cash exchanges still make up a significant means of exchange for a wide range of purchases. The literature is awash with data that highlights that both coins and banknotes are frequently identified as fomites for a wide range of microorganisms. However, most of these publications fail to provide any insight into the extent to which bacteria adhere and persist on money. We treated the various currencies used in this study as microcosms, and the bacterial loading from human hands as the corresponding microbiome. We show that the substrate from which banknotes are produced have a significant influence on both the survival and adherence of bacteria to banknotes. Smooth, polymer surfaces provide a poor means of adherence and survival, while coarser and more fibrous surfaces provide strong bacterial adherence and an environment to survive on. Coins were found to be strongly inhibitory to bacteria with a relatively rapid decline in survival on almost all coin surfaces tested. The inhibitory influence of coins was demonstrated through the use of antimicrobial disks made from coins. Despite the toxic effects of coins on many bacteria, bacteria do have the ability to adapt to the presence of coins in their environment which goes some way to explain the persistent presence of low levels of bacteria on coins in circulation.
"I will focus on Edward Said’s handling of the work of the British geographer Halford Mackinder...in Culture and Imperialism.... In 1904, Mackinder published an influential paper in The Geographical Journal...in which he labelled all of European and Asian Russia and much of Central Asia, then also under Russian rule, as 'The Geographical Pivot of History.' Mackinder’s views represented what we would now, following Heidegger’s coining of the term, and especially the use Said himself and Gayatri Spivak have made of it, call a 'worlding' of the world according to the dictates of colonialism and imperialism prevalent at the time. My argument will be that Said’s reading of Mackinder likewise amounts to a specific worlding for a specific moment in time, and that perhaps now we should move on from there."
The ongoing development of Titanic Quarter in Belfast, Northern Ireland, has already made significant changes to the area. The site on which the Titanic was built has been redeveloped as an area for tourism, business, education and the creative industries. The site has been developed following a significant inflow of private capital, and with the additional support of local government and public finance. This article outlines how economic and political forces have coalesced in Belfast to the point that the violent period of the ‘Troubles’ in Northern Ireland can be said to have created a ‘pleasingly blank canvas for regeneration’.
The duration and mode of occupation of pre-European Māori living in northern New Zealand was influenced by their subsistence strategies. Our analysis of the surface archaeological remains on Ahuahu (Great Mercury Island, Coromandel) examines how communities practiced horticulture and interacted with their local ecological and social environments through mobility, storage and competition. Focusing on a 300 ha study area in the northern quarter of the island, we use a multi-scalar land-unit (LU) approach to categorize the landscape as a continuously varying phenomenon with multiple characteristics. Our results suggest that the largest concentrations of horticultural features were located in areas with high sunlight exposure (insolation), good soils, low slopes and stream access. This patterning indicates that specific areas were probably being targeted for horticultural production, although differential feature preservation and visibility must also be considered. The spatial organisation of storage pits, residential features and fortified locations suggests year-round occupation of the island, not just summer planting. The heterogeneous characteristics of the landscape influenced the settlement of three particular zones on the island. We suggest that the economic defensibility of these areas would have facilitated territoriality within a socio-historical context of population fluidity and mobility.
Objectives We aimed to describe the epidemiology of statue attacks along with statue representativeness relative to modern day demographics in one case study country: New Zealand. Methods We performed Internet searches for the existence of outdoor statues of named individuals and historical attacks in New Zealand (NZ), combined a national survey with field visits to all identified statues to examine for injuries and repairs. Results Of the 123 statues identified, nearly a quarter (n = 28, 23%) had been attacked at least once (total of 45 separate attack events), with the number of attacks increasing from the 1990s. Attacks involved paint/graffiti (14% of all statues at least once), nose removal/damage (7%), decapitation (5%), and total destruction (2%). The risk of attack was relatively higher for statues of royalty (50%), military personnel (33%), explorers (29%), and politicians (25%), compared to other reasons for fame (eg, 0% for sports players). Statue subjects involved in colonialism or direct harm to Māori (Indigenous population), had 6.61 (95%CI: 2.30 to 19.9) greater odds (adjusted odds ratio) of being attacked than other subjects. Most of the statue subjects were of men (87%) and Europeans (93%). Other ethnicities were 6% Māori (comprising 15% of the population) and 1% each for Asian and Pacific peoples, who comprise 12% and 7% of the population respectively. Conclusions This national survey found an association between statue attacks and the role of statue subjects in colonialism or direct harm to the Indigenous population. Furthermore, the demography of the statue subjects may represent historical and current social power relationships—with under-representation of women and non-European ethnic groups.