In his chapter, John McCafferty turns to the dissolution of religious houses during the period of the reformations. Franciscan Observant houses in Oldenburg Denmark–Norway and Tudor–Stuart Britain and Ireland were early and particular targets of dissolution. His chapter argues that a comparative approach to the ending of conventual religious life in the northern realms, based on a number of contemporary chronicles written by friars and ex-friars, offers not only the opportunity to see common trends, but also communicates a good deal about how Observant reform in the period leading up to the Lutheran changes fed into early Protestant thinking. Influential Franciscan voices of the late sixteenth century grouped England, Ireland, Scotland and Scandinavia together as a quarter of provinces which had been affected by “heretical” depredations. Their unity of voice is striking, and it allows readers to think of the process of dissolution in terms of trajectory rather than from inside the confines of national historiographies.
The scientific discipline of “Movement Ecology” (Nathan et al. 2008) has played an important role in advancing our understanding of almost every ecological and evolutionary process, from nutrient cycling, to habitat selection, to population dynamics and community ecology. Interestingly, it has been almost a quarter of a century ago since Rodgers and Anson (1994) stated that GPS-based animal-location systems would become the standard for habitat selection studies. They were right! The data made available from GPS telemetry (i.e., sequence of GPS locations) quickly boosted the field of “Movement Ecology” (Nathan et al. 2008), and this field was also greatly advanced when the Max Planck Institute of Ornithology developed a free online database, Movebank (movebank.org), that allowed movement data from many, many species to be freely accessed and analysed (millions and millions of travel routes). Further advancements became possible with the development and use of new analytical tools to understand the rules used by the study animals to move (Ropert-Coudert and Wilson 2005; Sengupta et al. 2018).
Objectives We aimed to describe the epidemiology of statue attacks along with statue representativeness relative to modern day demographics in one case study country: New Zealand. Methods We performed Internet searches for the existence of outdoor statues of named individuals and historical attacks in New Zealand (NZ), combined a national survey with field visits to all identified statues to examine for injuries and repairs. Results Of the 123 statues identified, nearly a quarter (n = 28, 23%) had been attacked at least once (total of 45 separate attack events), with the number of attacks increasing from the 1990s. Attacks involved paint/graffiti (14% of all statues at least once), nose removal/damage (7%), decapitation (5%), and total destruction (2%). The risk of attack was relatively higher for statues of royalty (50%), military personnel (33%), explorers (29%), and politicians (25%), compared to other reasons for fame (eg, 0% for sports players). Statue subjects involved in colonialism or direct harm to Māori (Indigenous population), had 6.61 (95%CI: 2.30 to 19.9) greater odds (adjusted odds ratio) of being attacked than other subjects. Most of the statue subjects were of men (87%) and Europeans (93%). Other ethnicities were 6% Māori (comprising 15% of the population) and 1% each for Asian and Pacific peoples, who comprise 12% and 7% of the population respectively. Conclusions This national survey found an association between statue attacks and the role of statue subjects in colonialism or direct harm to the Indigenous population. Furthermore, the demography of the statue subjects may represent historical and current social power relationships—with under-representation of women and non-European ethnic groups.