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20 Research products

  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage
  • 2014-2023
  • SE
  • Norwegian
  • Digitala Vetenskapliga Arkivet - Academic Archive On-line

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    Authors: Kjær, Thomas;

    Historically, Norwegian settlement archaeology and research has depended on secondary materials, such as graves, non-contextual artefacts, and historical maps, often used in a retrogressive manner. Primary settlement materials were scarce, which to some extent justified the use of such methodologies. However, an increasing amount of rescue and commercial archaeology projects, combined with mechanical topsoil removal, has led to a vast increase in available primary material. This paper examines two sites excavated as part of E18-prosjektet Gulli-Langåker, namely Gulli and Auli, using both primary and secondary materials to illuminate its settlement structure during the late iron age. The archaeological material suggests that the two settlements performed continuous dwelling activities within a smaller confined area, though not at a fixed point in the landscape, throughout most of the iron age. These settlements did not reside in the landscape, they were the landscape. As external pressure changed, so did the composition of the landscape at any particular point. The nature, and force, of the pressures experienced during the Migration- and early Merovingian period led to significant changes in the interactions with the surrounding landscape. The result was neo-localization and a contraction of the local social sphere, seen by the changed field of inquiry at the new dwelling sites. A need to mark the geographical extent of the social sphere, as well as an act of dedication to the group, communal gravesites were placed on top of the earlier settlements. The road into the social sphere went through the graves, largely consisting of mounds, creating a theatric and symbolic access and exit point. So, to locate more early iron age dwelling sites one must look beyond the sites from the previous period, using knowledge of contemporary challenges and the phenomenology of the landscape as a compass. 

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    Authors: Wehmer, Kathrine;

    This paper is about food culture in Uppland under early iron age in Upplans, Sverige. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to analysis the lipids that were extracted from archaeological potsherds from Påtåker Raä 62, Sollentuna, Uppland. The result of the lipid analysis shows content of aquatic animal products, terrestrial animal products, vegetables and indication of being heated. Based on these results and what is considered to be a normal diet during the Iron Age, it is possible to say that there are similarities. These results are also compared with three sites from Late Iron Age – Vendel 1:1, Vendel 28 and Tuna, to see if there are any similarities. The reason to choose three sites from Late Iron Age, and not Early Iron Age, is because there haven’t been done studies like this on material from the early Iron Age. Vendel 28 was the site that was most similar to Påtåker, when it comes to its enviorment with meadows and woods, and the ceramics application areas. This study is part of the on going research of Påtåker Raä 62, Sollentuna, Oppland.

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    Authors: Røsseng, Eline;

    This thesis deal with three individual Pagophilus groenlandicus canin teeth from the location Asva, Estonia dating from the Late Bronze Age (here 700-900 B.C). The aim of this thesis is to find out whether the three harp seal individual was local or non-local to Asva and further if they were migrants from the Atlantic Sea. The teeth enamel are analysed for strontium isotopes using LA-ICP-MS and the result was compared against the strontium 87Sr/86Sr values in various rivers in the Baltic Sea. This is to see how the harp seal has migrated around in the Baltic Sea. By placing the 87Sr/86Sr values against the rivers, it may seem that the three harp seals were non-local and not from the Atlantic Sea.

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    Authors: Kristiansen, Heidi;

    The aim of the essay is to investigate rock art in Sweden as a cultural heritage. The material in the essay is rock art. The method is a literature study that compiles and analyzes other researchers’ views of the material (rock art). I limit the essay to rock art in Sweden. The essay has 3 questions: 1 How can cultural heritage be used? 2 Which laws protect rock art? 2 Are there archaeological traces of the fact that the rock art continued to have significance after no new rock art were created? The theoretical point of departure of the essay is historical perspective. The physical traces of the past are seen as different functions and have different meanings for different periods of time. The result of the essay is that rock art are seen as memories preserved in physical form (in books) and the actual ritual to punch the pictures or that performing rituals are seen as bodily preserved memory for example memorial ceremonies. The Heritage Board of Sweden works with the protection of culture, with knowledge dissemination and knowledge building, conservation and care authority work and archaeological assignments. County Administrative Board is responsible for protecting, informing and protecting the regional cultural environment as building and settlements, ancient objects and churches, cultural landscapes and industrial history sites. The Heritage Law determines the protection of valuable buildings such as ancient monuments, ancient finds, church cultural monuments and some cultural objects. The rock art form Stone Age may have affected where new rock art were placed under the Bronze Age, which affected the location of Rockies during the younger Bronze Age. Recent visits created a movement pattern in the landscape that may have lived and structured peoples activities also after the tradition of making new pictures had ceased. Rock art premises may have affected where new rock art were placed during the early Bronze Age, which affected the location of Rockies during the younger Bronze Age.

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    Authors: Østigård, Terje;

    Den nordiske vinteren har dominert og definert alle jordbrukssamfunn i det kalde nord fra tidenes morgen. Kontinuiteten fra innhøstingen gjennom vinter og vår til årets nye vekstsesong var den viktigste kilden til liv. Vannets verden var ritualisert hvor de store ofringene fant sted i forhold til årstidssyklusene. Den hjemlige kulten rundt høytidene hadde som mål å aktivere og intensivere immanente makter i naturen, som kunne overvinne vinterens kalde jerngrep. I vannets kilder og jordens fruktbare grunn lå krefter og forfedre som spiste snøen og vinteren nedenfra lenge før vårsolen smeltet snø og frost. Fossefall og spesielle kilder frøs aldri til is selv på de kaldeste vinterdagene. Disse underjordiske kildene med livgivende strømmer og motstridende natur, som beviste at de var sterkere enn den mektigste og forødende kulden, var kjernen i kult og kosmologi. I denne verden av vann var ofringer av mennesker og dyr ekstreme ritualer hvor bønder forsøkte å aktivere og kontrollere enda mektigere makter.

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    Authors: Eikje Ramberg, Linn;

    The kings of Norway issued coins on a regular basis starting in the mid-11th century, and probably conducted renovatio monetae whenever a new king came to power. As a privilege of bona regalia, the king could use coin production to serve his own interests. Economic factors are usually the main focus of discussions on coinage, but there were also political, religious and cultural dimensions that must have been important both for the production of coins and in the choice of motives, form and style. From the outset, manipulation of the coinage is visible in the debasement of silver content, followed by a reduction in weight to re-establish the silver level. In the 12th century, the weights continued to drop and single-faced coins and bracteates became the standard; only a few biface coins are known. These small coins and bracteates from the 12th century carry little or no information concerning issuer, date or place of production. This lack of information has resulted in a gap in our knowledge about the role of these coins in medieval society in Norway. This role was dependent both on the intentions of the producer and on how the coins were perceived by the people, and their will to use them in certain ways. What were the reasons behind issuing the smallest coins ever produced in coin history, and what impact did this dramatic reduction in weight have on the understanding and use of the coin? To advance the discussion it has been vital to establish new knowledge about chronology, coin-issuing authority and mints. These areas have been addressed through two analyses using numismatic and archaeological methods. The results of the initial analyses are combined with an investigation of the size of the coin production and a study of archaeological contexts, in order to reveal how, where and when the bracteates were used. The theoretical approach to understanding the role of coins is inspired by theories in anthropology and sociology about the many ways in which money can be incorporated in a society, emphasising the complex social component of coins in contrast to the traditional economic emphasis on their neutral qualities as a means of exchange. Central to this are the concepts behind formalism and substantivist and post-substantivist theory. The study concludes with a discussion that explores what can be said about economy and economic systems based on the 12th-century Norwegian coins.

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    Authors: Benner, Mats; Sörlin, Sverker;

    QC 20220318

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    Authors: Solsten, Ann Kristin;

    The Sami has lived of reindeer husbandry for more than a thousand years, but the reindeer has also been an important prey for predators as wolverines, bears, lynx’ and wolfs. For the reindeer and their own survival, the Sami therefor have developed a unique knowledge regarding predators they must avoid, of which the wolf is the worst of them all. This thesis attempts to point out in which ways the wolf has effected the reindeer husbandry in Sweden, and how the problems has been presented through three periods during the last hundred years, in one of the Sami’s own media channels, the magazine called Samefolket. The thesis also attempts to clarify the implemented and proposed solutions, and the changing of them, and even to find out how the reindeer herder’s, and people in general, have looked at the occurrence of wolves, now and then. The Swedish wolf population has increased considerably during the last hundred years, but the occurrence of wolves has been a significant problem for the reindeer husbandry during all the treated periods. The wolves chases, sores, aches and kills all kinds of reindeers, and spreads the reindeer herds, and scares them and makes them difficult to work with. In addition, this create great frustration, stress and a lot of extra work for those who work with the reindeers. Several measures to solve the problem has been proposed, and with different results. In previous years, hunting with different methods was common, and good hunting performances was prized. From 1966, killing wolves is illegal. The development of good compensation systems is therefore one of the tried solutions of the problems after that. In recent years, it has also been decided that the wolf population should not exceed a particular number of individuals in the reindeer pastry areas.

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    Authors: Østigård, Terje; Kaliff, Anders;

    Døden og gravmaterial har definert arkeologifaget som disiplin siden tidenes morgen, men selv i den antikvariske samtiden ble etnologi og folklore i liten grad brukt som kilde til kunnskap om forhistorien og oldnordiske gravskikker. De fleste gravstudier har derfor ikke analysert dødens essens: sjelens substans. Gjennom en religionsvitenskapelig forståelse av etnologi og folklore presenteres en ny arkeologisk analyse av Nordens forhistoriske gravmaterial og døden som fenomen. En studie av sjelens substans må bokstavelig talt trenge inn i hjernen, beinmargen, blodet og skjelettet, som er menneskets åndelige essens, og inn i kvinnens livmor hvor sjelen skapes og fødes. Sjelene til forfedrene kroppsligjorde seg som alver, vetter og andre åndelige vesener. Den sjelelige essens i fysisk substans var også kosmologisk kraft, som kunne brukes og misbrukes, og derfor er dette også en berettelse om sykdom og trolldom. Medisinsk kannibalisme og bruk av de døde og døden var et effektivt beskyttelsesmiddel og den sterkeste medisin i tradisjonell legekunst. I den forhistoriske medisinhistorien var sykdom direkte og personlige angrep av ulike forfedre, som levde misfornøyde i en hinsidig tilværelse i ny kroppslig form. Sjelene kunne ta utallige former som ulike vetter, noen gode og andre onde, men en ting var sikkert: De ville komme tilbake til de levende, og de var farlige for de gjenlevende. Slekten definerte de døde og de døde definerte slekten. Dødsbryllup forente derfor ikke bare de levende og døde, men også fremtidige familier og slekter av forfedre, og sentralt i denne kosmologien var de store årtidsfestivaler, som kulminerte med den tradisjonelle julefeiringen.

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    Authors: Solheim, Randi C.;

    The thesis examines the art theoretical discourse, in Norway, from the mid eighteenth century up to 1905. The objective of the study has been to identify and analyse the most important art theoretical positions in treatises and other programmatic texts and works of art. The source material has been analysed through close reading of the texts, and through detailed examination of the chosen artworks. The focus is on discourse that is understood, in the traditional sense, as an exchange of ideas or communication between individuals where there exists a difference of opinion. This model is inspired by Jürgen Habermas’ theory of communicative action and represents a kind of analytical pluralism that differs from the discourse model associated with Michel Foucault. The period examined has been chosen both from a political and from a discursive point of view. Norway in the examined period transformed from a pre-modern society into a modern nation state. It was also in this period art became a national concern. Prior to 1814, Norway was part of a larger Danish-Norwegian conglomerate state with the capital Copenhagen. From 1814 up to 1905 Norway had a semi-autonomous status with its own capital, Christiania, within a personal union under a common monarch with Sweden. The hypothesis of the thesis is that the art theoretical conflicts are expressions of hegemonic rivalries between elites with differing national strategies. This perspective, which implies a struggle over ideas and positions, transgresses Habermas’ consensus model. The power perspective takes into consideration that some positions might be marginalised or supressed in art historical writing. By acknowledging these positions, the thesis also has a critical art historiographic ambition. The analysis is organised in four chapters that correspond to distinct socio-cultural periods. The first chapter, Kierlighed til Fædrenelandet, deals with the period from the mid-eighteenth century up to 1814. The focal point of this period is on the art theoretical discourse connected to the development of the Royal Academy of Art in Copenhagen. In the second chapter, Patriotismens borgerkrig, the prime focus is on the effort of building art institutions in the new Norwegian capital Christiania, and the controversies regarding the nation’ s artistic culture. The third chapter, Den store harmonien, highlights the identity politics after 1850 and the resulting disputes over the national art. The fourth chapter, Harmoni gjennom differensiering, targets the diversity of art theoretical standpoints competing for hegemony from the mid-1870s to 1905. The results of the study show that the dividing line in the art theoretical conflicts in Norway, during the period of examination, primarily goes between a humanistic orientated secular elite and an ecclesiastically trained elite. The issues of dispute can be grouped around two different themes. These themes often appear as dichotomies, where two fundamental differences of opinion emerge. The first is the conflict between a utilitarian view on art versus the view of art as luxury. The second dichotomy can be traced to the discord between an individualising and an archaic stylistic idiom. These divides are in turn indicative of the conflict between two divergent educational ideals. One reflecting humanist scientific ideals, the other based on scholastic theological values.

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20 Research products
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    Authors: Kjær, Thomas;

    Historically, Norwegian settlement archaeology and research has depended on secondary materials, such as graves, non-contextual artefacts, and historical maps, often used in a retrogressive manner. Primary settlement materials were scarce, which to some extent justified the use of such methodologies. However, an increasing amount of rescue and commercial archaeology projects, combined with mechanical topsoil removal, has led to a vast increase in available primary material. This paper examines two sites excavated as part of E18-prosjektet Gulli-Langåker, namely Gulli and Auli, using both primary and secondary materials to illuminate its settlement structure during the late iron age. The archaeological material suggests that the two settlements performed continuous dwelling activities within a smaller confined area, though not at a fixed point in the landscape, throughout most of the iron age. These settlements did not reside in the landscape, they were the landscape. As external pressure changed, so did the composition of the landscape at any particular point. The nature, and force, of the pressures experienced during the Migration- and early Merovingian period led to significant changes in the interactions with the surrounding landscape. The result was neo-localization and a contraction of the local social sphere, seen by the changed field of inquiry at the new dwelling sites. A need to mark the geographical extent of the social sphere, as well as an act of dedication to the group, communal gravesites were placed on top of the earlier settlements. The road into the social sphere went through the graves, largely consisting of mounds, creating a theatric and symbolic access and exit point. So, to locate more early iron age dwelling sites one must look beyond the sites from the previous period, using knowledge of contemporary challenges and the phenomenology of the landscape as a compass. 

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    Authors: Wehmer, Kathrine;

    This paper is about food culture in Uppland under early iron age in Upplans, Sverige. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to analysis the lipids that were extracted from archaeological potsherds from Påtåker Raä 62, Sollentuna, Uppland. The result of the lipid analysis shows content of aquatic animal products, terrestrial animal products, vegetables and indication of being heated. Based on these results and what is considered to be a normal diet during the Iron Age, it is possible to say that there are similarities. These results are also compared with three sites from Late Iron Age – Vendel 1:1, Vendel 28 and Tuna, to see if there are any similarities. The reason to choose three sites from Late Iron Age, and not Early Iron Age, is because there haven’t been done studies like this on material from the early Iron Age. Vendel 28 was the site that was most similar to Påtåker, when it comes to its enviorment with meadows and woods, and the ceramics application areas. This study is part of the on going research of Påtåker Raä 62, Sollentuna, Oppland.

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    Authors: Røsseng, Eline;

    This thesis deal with three individual Pagophilus groenlandicus canin teeth from the location Asva, Estonia dating from the Late Bronze Age (here 700-900 B.C). The aim of this thesis is to find out whether the three harp seal individual was local or non-local to Asva and further if they were migrants from the Atlantic Sea. The teeth enamel are analysed for strontium isotopes using LA-ICP-MS and the result was compared against the strontium 87Sr/86Sr values in various rivers in the Baltic Sea. This is to see how the harp seal has migrated around in the Baltic Sea. By placing the 87Sr/86Sr values against the rivers, it may seem that the three harp seals were non-local and not from the Atlantic Sea.

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    Authors: Kristiansen, Heidi;

    The aim of the essay is to investigate rock art in Sweden as a cultural heritage. The material in the essay is rock art. The method is a literature study that compiles and analyzes other researchers’ views of the material (rock art). I limit the essay to rock art in Sweden. The essay has 3 questions: 1 How can cultural heritage be used? 2 Which laws protect rock art? 2 Are there archaeological traces of the fact that the rock art continued to have significance after no new rock art were created? The theoretical point of departure of the essay is historical perspective. The physical traces of the past are seen as different functions and have different meanings for different periods of time. The result of the essay is that rock art are seen as memories preserved in physical form (in books) and the actual ritual to punch the pictures or that performing rituals are seen as bodily preserved memory for example memorial ceremonies. The Heritage Board of Sweden works with the protection of culture, with knowledge dissemination and knowledge building, conservation and care authority work and archaeological assignments. County Administrative Board is responsible for protecting, informing and protecting the regional cultural environment as building and settlements, ancient objects and churches, cultural landscapes and industrial history sites. The Heritage Law determines the protection of valuable buildings such as ancient monuments, ancient finds, church cultural monuments and some cultural objects. The rock art form Stone Age may have affected where new rock art were placed under the Bronze Age, which affected the location of Rockies during the younger Bronze Age. Recent visits created a movement pattern in the landscape that may have lived and structured peoples activities also after the tradition of making new pictures had ceased. Rock art premises may have affected where new rock art were placed during the early Bronze Age, which affected the location of Rockies during the younger Bronze Age.

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    Authors: Østigård, Terje;

    Den nordiske vinteren har dominert og definert alle jordbrukssamfunn i det kalde nord fra tidenes morgen. Kontinuiteten fra innhøstingen gjennom vinter og vår til årets nye vekstsesong var den viktigste kilden til liv. Vannets verden var ritualisert hvor de store ofringene fant sted i forhold til årstidssyklusene. Den hjemlige kulten rundt høytidene hadde som mål å aktivere og intensivere immanente makter i naturen, som kunne overvinne vinterens kalde jerngrep. I vannets kilder og jordens fruktbare grunn lå krefter og forfedre som spiste snøen og vinteren nedenfra lenge før vårsolen smeltet snø og frost. Fossefall og spesielle kilder frøs aldri til is selv på de kaldeste vinterdagene. Disse underjordiske kildene med livgivende strømmer og motstridende natur, som beviste at de var sterkere enn den mektigste og forødende kulden, var kjernen i kult og kosmologi. I denne verden av vann var ofringer av mennesker og dyr ekstreme ritualer hvor bønder forsøkte å aktivere og kontrollere enda mektigere makter.

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    Authors: Eikje Ramberg, Linn;

    The kings of Norway issued coins on a regular basis starting in the mid-11th century, and probably conducted renovatio monetae whenever a new king came to power. As a privilege of bona regalia, the king could use coin production to serve his own interests. Economic factors are usually the main focus of discussions on coinage, but there were also political, religious and cultural dimensions that must have been important both for the production of coins and in the choice of motives, form and style. From the outset, manipulation of the coinage is visible in the debasement of silver content, followed by a reduction in weight to re-establish the silver level. In the 12th century, the weights continued to drop and single-faced coins and bracteates became the standard; only a few biface coins are known. These small coins and bracteates from the 12th century carry little or no information concerning issuer, date or place of production. This lack of information has resulted in a gap in our knowledge about the role of these coins in medieval society in Norway. This role was dependent both on the intentions of the producer and on how the coins were perceived by the people, and their will to use them in certain ways. What were the reasons behind issuing the smallest coins ever produced in coin history, and what impact did this dramatic reduction in weight have on the understanding and use of the coin? To advance the discussion it has been vital to establish new knowledge about chronology, coin-issuing authority and mints. These areas have been addressed through two analyses using numismatic and archaeological methods. The results of the initial analyses are combined with an investigation of the size of the coin production and a study of archaeological contexts, in order to reveal how, where and when the bracteates were used. The theoretical approach to understanding the role of coins is inspired by theories in anthropology and sociology about the many ways in which money can be incorporated in a society, emphasising the complex social component of coins in contrast to the traditional economic emphasis on their neutral qualities as a means of exchange. Central to this are the concepts behind formalism and substantivist and post-substantivist theory. The study concludes with a discussion that explores what can be said about economy and economic systems based on the 12th-century Norwegian coins.

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    Authors: Benner, Mats; Sörlin, Sverker;

    QC 20220318

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    Authors: Solsten, Ann Kristin;

    The Sami has lived of reindeer husbandry for more than a thousand years, but the reindeer has also been an important prey for predators as wolverines, bears, lynx’ and wolfs. For the reindeer and their own survival, the Sami therefor have developed a unique knowledge regarding predators they must avoid, of which the wolf is the worst of them all. This thesis attempts to point out in which ways the wolf has effected the reindeer husbandry in Sweden, and how the problems has been presented through three periods during the last hundred years, in one of the Sami’s own media channels, the magazine called Samefolket. The thesis also attempts to clarify the implemented and proposed solutions, and the changing of them, and even to find out how the reindeer herder’s, and people in general, have looked at the occurrence of wolves, now and then. The Swedish wolf population has increased considerably during the last hundred years, but the occurrence of wolves has been a significant problem for the reindeer husbandry during all the treated periods. The wolves chases, sores, aches and kills all kinds of reindeers, and spreads the reindeer herds, and scares them and makes them difficult to work with. In addition, this create great frustration, stress and a lot of extra work for those who work with the reindeers. Several measures to solve the problem has been proposed, and with different results. In previous years, hunting with different methods was common, and good hunting performances was prized. From 1966, killing wolves is illegal. The development of good compensation systems is therefore one of the tried solutions of the problems after that. In recent years, it has also been decided that the wolf population should not exceed a particular number of individuals in the reindeer pastry areas.

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    Authors: Østigård, Terje; Kaliff, Anders;

    Døden og gravmaterial har definert arkeologifaget som disiplin siden tidenes morgen, men selv i den antikvariske samtiden ble etnologi og folklore i liten grad brukt som kilde til kunnskap om forhistorien og oldnordiske gravskikker. De fleste gravstudier har derfor ikke analysert dødens essens: sjelens substans. Gjennom en religionsvitenskapelig forståelse av etnologi og folklore presenteres en ny arkeologisk analyse av Nordens forhistoriske gravmaterial og døden som fenomen. En studie av sjelens substans må bokstavelig talt trenge inn i hjernen, beinmargen, blodet og skjelettet, som er menneskets åndelige essens, og inn i kvinnens livmor hvor sjelen skapes og fødes. Sjelene til forfedrene kroppsligjorde seg som alver, vetter og andre åndelige vesener. Den sjelelige essens i fysisk substans var også kosmologisk kraft, som kunne brukes og misbrukes, og derfor er dette også en berettelse om sykdom og trolldom. Medisinsk kannibalisme og bruk av de døde og døden var et effektivt beskyttelsesmiddel og den sterkeste medisin i tradisjonell legekunst. I den forhistoriske medisinhistorien var sykdom direkte og personlige angrep av ulike forfedre, som levde misfornøyde i en hinsidig tilværelse i ny kroppslig form. Sjelene kunne ta utallige former som ulike vetter, noen gode og andre onde, men en ting var sikkert: De ville komme tilbake til de levende, og de var farlige for de gjenlevende. Slekten definerte de døde og de døde definerte slekten. Dødsbryllup forente derfor ikke bare de levende og døde, men også fremtidige familier og slekter av forfedre, og sentralt i denne kosmologien var de store årtidsfestivaler, som kulminerte med den tradisjonelle julefeiringen.

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    Authors: Solheim, Randi C.;

    The thesis examines the art theoretical discourse, in Norway, from the mid eighteenth century up to 1905. The objective of the study has been to identify and analyse the most important art theoretical positions in treatises and other programmatic texts and works of art. The source material has been analysed through close reading of the texts, and through detailed examination of the chosen artworks. The focus is on discourse that is understood, in the traditional sense, as an exchange of ideas or communication between individuals where there exists a difference of opinion. This model is inspired by Jürgen Habermas’ theory of communicative action and represents a kind of analytical pluralism that differs from the discourse model associated with Michel Foucault. The period examined has been chosen both from a political and from a discursive point of view. Norway in the examined period transformed from a pre-modern society into a modern nation state. It was also in this period art became a national concern. Prior to 1814, Norway was part of a larger Danish-Norwegian conglomerate state with the capital Copenhagen. From 1814 up to 1905 Norway had a semi-autonomous status with its own capital, Christiania, within a personal union under a common monarch with Sweden. The hypothesis of the thesis is that the art theoretical conflicts are expressions of hegemonic rivalries between elites with differing national strategies. This perspective, which implies a struggle over ideas and positions, transgresses Habermas’ consensus model. The power perspective takes into consideration that some positions might be marginalised or supressed in art historical writing. By acknowledging these positions, the thesis also has a critical art historiographic ambition. The analysis is organised in four chapters that correspond to distinct socio-cultural periods. The first chapter, Kierlighed til Fædrenelandet, deals with the period from the mid-eighteenth century up to 1814. The focal point of this period is on the art theoretical discourse connected to the development of the Royal Academy of Art in Copenhagen. In the second chapter, Patriotismens borgerkrig, the prime focus is on the effort of building art institutions in the new Norwegian capital Christiania, and the controversies regarding the nation’ s artistic culture. The third chapter, Den store harmonien, highlights the identity politics after 1850 and the resulting disputes over the national art. The fourth chapter, Harmoni gjennom differensiering, targets the diversity of art theoretical standpoints competing for hegemony from the mid-1870s to 1905. The results of the study show that the dividing line in the art theoretical conflicts in Norway, during the period of examination, primarily goes between a humanistic orientated secular elite and an ecclesiastically trained elite. The issues of dispute can be grouped around two different themes. These themes often appear as dichotomies, where two fundamental differences of opinion emerge. The first is the conflict between a utilitarian view on art versus the view of art as luxury. The second dichotomy can be traced to the discord between an individualising and an archaic stylistic idiom. These divides are in turn indicative of the conflict between two divergent educational ideals. One reflecting humanist scientific ideals, the other based on scholastic theological values.

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